NURS 8200 Entire Course Weekly Discussions And Assignments

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NURS 8200/NURS 8200F/NURS 8200M/NURS 8200C/NURS 8200A: Research Methods for Evidence-Based Practice 

NURS 8200 Entire Course Weekly Discussions And Assignments

NURS 8200/NURS 8200F/NURS 8200M/NURS 8200C/NURS 8200A Week 1: Introduction to Research Methods

What is evidence-based practice? How does it relate to research? What is the significance of evidence-based practice and research in nursing and health care in general? These are questions you may have asked yourself as you prepared for this course.

Evidence-based practice is a term used to describe the integration of individual clinician experience and knowledge with external information from reputable studies and data sets. Research is an integral component of evidence-based practice; it can support or offer other options for the opinions of clinicians (including doctors, nurses, specialists, and other health care professionals) regarding patient care, and it allows clinicians to make informed decisions.

In order to utilize evidence for practice, health care professionals need to be familiar with key research concepts and statistical principles necessary to evaluate data. The first week of this course introduces you to the fundamental concepts of research as they relate to nursing and evidence-based practice. You explore the two major methods of research, quantitative and qualitative, and consider the characteristics of each method. You also consider how each method can be applied to evidence-based nursing practice.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Analyze the application of quantitative and qualitative research in evidence-based practice
  • Compare the characteristics of quantitative and qualitative research

Some people consider the difference between the terms “quantitative” and “qualitative” to be similar to the difference between facts and feelings. These individuals might argue that quantitative approaches are better or more appropriate than qualitative approaches, particularly in health care. They might support this argument by saying that quantitative approaches are based on numbers and concrete evidence rather than on subjective observations and opinions.

Based on the information presented in this week’s Learning Resources and Media, do you think this an accurate way of distinguishing quantitative and qualitative methods of research? Is one method inherently superior to the other? How would you describe the difference between quantitative and qualitative research to someone who was completely unfamiliar with these concepts?

This Discussion explores the characteristics of quantitative and qualitative research methods as well as the application of each in the practice setting. You examine the suitability of each method to evidence-based practice. You are encouraged to make connections between general characteristics and abstract research concepts to realistic scenarios and actual experiences in your responses to this week’s Discussion prompts.

Note: This Discussion takes place in small groups, which should have been assigned by your Instructor.

To prepare:

  • Review Dr. Shi’s comparison of the characteristics of quantitative and qualitative research presented in this week’s media presentation and in the “Overview of Qualitative Research Methods” tutorial.
  • Reflect on the Learning Resources focusing on the use of quantitative and qualitative research in health care.
  • With the two articles you reviewed in mind (one quantitative and one qualitative), think about how those types of research projects influence, or support, evidence-based nursing practice. Ask yourself: Which methodology is most appropriate for supporting evidence-based practice? What characteristics of that methodology support my conclusion?

By Day 3

Post a cohesive response in your small group that addresses the following:

  • Analyze how quantitative and qualitative research projects can be applied to evidence-based nursing practice.
  • What characteristics of quantitative or qualitative research make it the most appropriate for addressing evidence-based practice problems? Support your position.

Read a selection of your colleagues’ postings in your small group.

By Day 6

Respond to two of your colleagues in your small group in one or more of the following ways:

  • Ask a probing question, substantiated with additional background information, evidence, or research.
  • Share an insight from having read your colleagues’ postings, synthesizing the information to provide new perspectives.
  • Offer and support an alternative perspective using readings from the classroom or from your own research in the Walden Library.
  • Validate an idea with your own experience and additional research.
  • Make a suggestion based on additional evidence drawn from readings or after synthesizing multiple postings.
  • Expand on your colleagues’ postings by providing additional insights or contrasting perspectives based on reading.s and evidence.

Note: Please see the Course Syllabus and Discussion Posting and Response Rubric for formal Discussion question posting and response evaluation criteria.

Return to this Discussion in a few days to read the responses to your initial posting. Note what you learned and/or any insights you gained as a result of the comments made by your colleagues.

Be sure to support your work with specific citations from this week’s Learning Resources and any additional sources.

Post your responses to the Small Group Discussion based on the course requirements.

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NURS 8200/NURS 8200F/NURS 8200M/NURS 8200C/NURS 8200A Week 2: Quantitative Research Designs

In Week 1, you examined some fundamental differences between quantitative and qualitative research methods. This week beings the in-depth exploration of quantitative research, which will continue through Week 9. This is not to diminish the use of qualitative research methods, which have just as much merit as quantitative methods. Quantitative research, on the other hand, has at least one underlying commonality—some engagement with numerical values. Because of this, there are many general considerations and principles that can be applied to quantitative research.

This week, you consider the characteristics and uses of many different kinds of quantitative research study designs. You also explore various important components of quantitative research, including research problems and questions, hypotheses, and variables. You examine the purpose and significance of conducting a quantitative research study of your choice, formulate a research problem statement, and develop hypotheses related to the research study you selected. These skills in developing quantitative research designs will assist you in analyzing research studies. This week, you begin your article critique; this assignment will give you the opportunity to apply many of the concepts presented throughout Weeks 1 through 9 of the course.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Formulate a research question, testable hypothesis, and appropriate research design for a quantitative research study
  • Identify independent and dependent variables
  • Evaluate the purpose and significance of a proposed research study that applies to evidence-based practice

NURS 8200 Entire Course Weekly Discussions And Assignments

Formulating a specific, applicable research problem statement is an important step in beginning a research process. The problem statement defines the focus of the research study, dictates what methods and tools will be used, and sets the stage for all subsequent elements of the research process. Because of this, it is necessary to put a great deal of thought into the problem statement to ensure that the rest of the research process will be well planned and appropriate to the problem at hand.

This week’s Discussion asks you to identify evidence-based practice problems that can be addressed using quantitative research methods. Based on the practice problem you select, formulate a quantitative research problem statement. In this Discussion, you are also given the opportunity to evaluate your colleagues’ problem statements. Please refer to this week’s Learning Resources for appropriate and scholarly examples of research problem statements and how they inform the rest of the research process.

To prepare:

  • Determine a nursing practice problem that is of interest to you and that is appropriate for a quantitative research study. Note: You will continue to use this problem in the Discussions over the next several weeks.
  • Using the Walden Library and other credible sources, locate and read two or three articles that address your practice problem.
  • With your practice problem in mind, review the Learning Resources and media presentations focusing on the strategies presented for generating a research problem statement.
  • Ask yourself: What is the importance of my practice problem to nursing, research, and theory? How might addressing this problem bring about positive social change? How will investigating this problem support evidence-based practice?

By Day 3

Post a proposed research problem statement, including sufficient information to make your focus clear and explaining how addressing this problem may bring about positive social change.

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.

By Day 6

Respond to at least two of your colleagues, providing specific feedback and critiquing their problem statement using the following criteria (Gray, Grove & Sutherland, 2017):

  • Does the problem have professional significance?
  • Does the problem have potential or actual significance for society?
  • Does the problem have the potential to build or refine evidence-based practice?

Return to this Discussion in a few days to read the responses to your initial posting. Note what you learned and/or any insights you gained as a result of the comments made by your colleagues.

Be sure to support your work with specific citations from this week’s Learning Resources and any additional sources.

Post your responses to the Discussion based on the course requirements.

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NURS 8200/NURS 8200F/NURS 8200M/NURS 8200C/NURS 8200A Week 3: Quantitative Methods: Collecting Quantitative Data

How is quantitative research conducted? What issues are important for researchers to keep in mind as they conduct a study? One of the most important considerations in quantitative research is how to select an appropriate subset, or sample, of a population to study, so that inferences using the data can be made about the overall population. The measurement process is also critical, as researchers must determine how to describe and measure concepts in ways that produce valid and reliable results. As a health care professional, it is vital that you understand how these key issues affect the collection of data that may be used to inform evidence-based practice.

This week focuses on sampling methods and data collection, two critical components of the research process. You continue to develop your article critique by evaluating the sampling and data collection methods used in your selected study.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Describe the target population and sampling strategy using the research question identified in Week 2>
  • Formulate an appropriate approach for collecting data from a selected sample

The temptation to form premature theories upon insufficient data is the bane of our profession.

—Sherlock Holmes (from The Valley of Fear, by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle)

Sherlock Holmes, the great fictional logician, may have made this reprimand in reference to the science of criminal investigation, but the underlying principle holds true for all branches of research. Now that you have identified a research problem and developed hypotheses, the next step is to identify your sample and begin gathering data that will answer your research questions. The process of sampling to gather data is a crucial step in the research process in that you must be sure that the instruments and sample population mesh well with the study’s goals and objectives so that they will produce valid and reliable results.

For this Discussion, you identify a target population and sample appropriate for addressing the research problem you formulated in the Week 2 Discussion.

To prepare:

  • Review this week’s media presentation and consider Dr. Pothoff’s comments on sampling.
  • Recall the research problem, question, and hypothesis you developed in Week 2’s Discussion. With this in mind, ask yourself: What population is most relevant, and accessible, for exploring my research problem?
  • Consider how you could reach this target population to gather data. What are some challenges you might encounter?
  • Determine a data collection approach for your target population. Develop an informed rationale for selecting that approach.

By Day 3

Post a cohesive response that addresses the following questions:

  • What are the researchable populations in your area of practice? Which would be most appropriate for use in your research study?
  • What are the challenges of obtaining a sample from this population? How could you address those challenges?
  • What approach would you use to collect data from the sample? Provide a rationale for the approach you choose based on this week’s Learning Resources.

Read a selection of your colleague’s postings.

By Day 6

Respond to two of your colleagues in one of the following ways:

  • Provide additional strategies for addressing challenges to obtaining a sample from the identified population
  • Suggest a different population that may be appropriate for addressing the research problem
  • Summarize the strengths of the data collection method identified in the post
  • Share any problems or concerns over the identified data collection method
  • Suggest an alternative data collection method and provide your rationale

Return to this Discussion in a few days to read the responses to your initial posting. Note what you learned and/or any insights you gained as a result of the comments made by your colleagues.

Be sure to support your work with specific citations from this week’s Learning Resources and any additional sources.

Post your responses to the Discussion based on the course requirements.

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NURS 8200/NURS 8200F/NURS 8200M/NURS 8200C/NURS 8200A Week 5: Quantitative Methods: t Tests and ANOVA

Last week, you examined and applied the principles of descriptive statistics, which, as you may have noted, are only used to make conclusions about the data and sample in a particular study. Descriptive statistics are not useful in making generalizations or broad conclusions beyond the scope of the immediate components of the study. In order for researchers to apply the findings of a study to the outside population or world, they employ what is known as inferential statistics.

This week explores the concepts and uses of inferential statistics and introduces two useful parametric tests: ttests and analysis of variance (ANOVA). These tests are used to inspect the differences in the means of two or more data sets in a study. Through the material and assignments, you familiarize yourself with t tests and ANOVA and their relationships to dependent and independent variables, hypotheses, and power analysis. You continue to use SPSS to apply the weekly concepts by calculating, presenting, and drawing conclusions based on a t test and ANOVA.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Analyze the purpose and value of t tests and ANOVA in research and evidence-based practice
  • Differentiate between the independent and dependent t test
  • Interpret and report results of t tests and ANOVA

Inferential statistics enable researchers to apply the data they gather and the conclusions they draw from a particular sample to a larger population. As the name implies, inferential statistics focus on inferring whether there is a relationship between two or more variables. These statistical analyses include t tests and analysis of variance (ANOVA). t Tests are part of a group of statistical tests that test hypotheses; in fact, it is necessary to formulate a hypothesis in order to use a t test, because the results of the test can only be interpreted in the context of a scientific hypothesis.

Inferential statistics such as t tests work well for comparing two groups. Although mathematically equivalent to the t test, ANOVA allows for the comparison of more than two groups. Therefore, when three or more groups are involved, the ANOVA should be used.

In this week’s Discussion, you are asked to locate a current research article that utilizes either a ttest or ANOVA analysis. You provide a summary of the research study and of the study’s application to evidence-based practice. You also examine the article’s use of a t test or ANOVA and how either of those statistical analysis tools helped to inform the article’s conclusions and recommendations.

To prepare:

  • Consider some of the important issues in health care delivery or nursing practice today. Bring to mind the topics to which you have been exposed through previous courses in your program of study, as well as any news items that have caught your attention recently. Select one topic to consider for this Discussion.
  • Next, review journal, newspaper, and Internet articles that provide credible information on your topic. Then, select one research article on which to focus that used inferential statistical analysis (either a t test or ANOVA) to study the topic.
  • With information from the Learning Resources in mind, evaluate the purpose and value of the research study discussed in your selected article and consider the following questions:
    • Who comprised the sample in this study?
    • What were the sources of data?
    • What inferential statistic was used to analyze the data collected (t test or ANOVA)?
    • What were the findings?
  • Ask yourself: How did using an inferential statistic bring value to the research study? Did it increase the study’s application to evidence-based practice?

By Day 3

Post a cohesive response that addresses the following:

  • Identify the topic you selected in the first line of your posting.
  • Summarize the study discussed in your selected research article and provide a complete APA citation. Include in your summary the sample, data sources, inferential statistic utilized, and findings.
  • Evaluate the purpose and value of this particular research study to the topic.
  • Did using inferential statistics strengthen or weaken the study’s application to evidence-based practice?

Read a selection of your colleagues’ postings.

By Day 6

Respond to at least two of your colleagues in one or more of the following ways:

  • Ask a probing question, substantiated with additional background information, evidence, or research.
  • Share an insight from having read your colleagues’ postings, synthesizing the information to provide new perspectives.
  • Offer and support an alternative perspective using readings from the classroom or from your own research in the Walden Library.
  • Validate an idea with your own experience and additional research.
  • Make a suggestion based on additional evidence drawn from readings or after synthesizing multiple postings.
  • Expand on your colleagues’ postings by providing additional insights or contrasting perspectives based on readings and evidence.

Return to this Discussion in a few days to read the responses to your initial posting. Note what you learned and/or any insights you gained as a result of the comments made by your colleagues.

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NURS 8200/NURS 8200F/NURS 8200M/NURS 8200C/NURS 8200A Week 6: Quantitative Methods: Correlations

How many commercials or ads have you seen that state, “Breakfast is the most important meal of the day!” or that “Children who eat a nutritious breakfast earn better grades in school”? Research studies do indicate such a correlation; however, how could you as a researcher be certain that eating a balanced breakfast is related tochildren performing well academically? Perhaps parents who make sure their children eat a healthy breakfast are more likely to help their children with their schoolwork. Or perhaps the types of children who choose more wholesome breakfast foods are simply smarter or more motivated in school than their counterparts who prefer inadequate or unhealthy breakfasts.

This week focuses on statistical methods that examine correlation. You explore how the correlation statistic is utilized in health care and evidence-based nursing practice as a means of examining relationships. You also consider the process of reporting your research results based on statistical significance, correlation, and the risk or possibility of error in your study.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Construct a meaningful research question and hypothesis appropriate for a correlational statistic
  • Analyze, interpret, and report bivariate statistics

Does caffeine cause cancer? Is autism caused by childhood immunizations? What is the relationship between eating sugary sweets at night and weight gain? It is often helpful to determine and explore relationships between variables. This is especially important in health care, a field dedicated to providing quality care for patients and improving health outcomes. Examining relationships between variables forms the basis for correlational statistics.

In this Discussion, you identify a health care or nursing practice problem that can be explored with correlational statistics and formulate a research question for exploring that problem. You also develop a null and alternate hypothesis, determine the variables related to the study, and predict relationships between the variables based on what you know of correlational statistics.

To prepare:

  • Review this week’s Learning Resources and the “Correlation” tutorial focusing on the types of research questions that can be answered using a correlational statistic.
  • Brainstorm a number of health care delivery or nursing practice problems that could be explored using correlational statistics. Then, select one problem on which to focus for this Discussion.
  • Formulate a research question to address the problem and that would lead you to employ correlational statistics.
  • Develop a null hypothesis and alternate hypotheses.
  • Ask yourself: What is the expected direction of the relationship?

By Day 3

Post a cohesive response that addresses the following:

  • Identify your selected problem in the first line of your posting and post your research question.
  • Post a null hypothesis and alternate hypotheses for your research question and identify the dependent and independent variables that would be associated with the research study.
  • Provide your prediction for the expected relationship (positive or negative) between the variables. Why do you think that sort of relationship will exist? What other factors might affect the outcome?

Read a selection of your colleagues’ postings.

By Day 6

Respond to at least two of your colleagues, critiquing their research question and hypotheses and pointing out factors that may influence the strength of the correlation of the variables. Be sure to provide a rationale for your responses in one or more of the following ways:

  • Ask a probing question, substantiated with additional background information, evidence, or research.
  • Share an insight from having read your colleagues’ postings, synthesizing the information to provide new perspectives.
  • Offer and support an alternative perspective using readings from the classroom or from your own research in the Walden Library.
  • Validate an idea with your own experience and additional research.
  • Make a suggestion based on additional evidence drawn from readings or after synthesizing multiple postings.
  • Expand on your colleagues’ postings by providing additional insights or contrasting perspectives based on readings and evidence.

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NURS 8200/NURS 8200F/NURS 8200M/NURS 8200C/NURS 8200A Week 7: Quantitative Methods: Linear Regression

Suppose you were involved in a research study examining the effect of drinking soda on a child’s weight. You performed a study over the course of several months on a sample of fifth graders, allowing one group to drink two cans of soda per day, another group one can per day, and the control group no soda at all. After you gathered your data, you would need to analyze the results for each of the three groups to determine whether to accept either the null or alternative hypothesis in your study. A useful method of analysis for this particular study is known as linear regression.

As you examine linear regression, you may notice some limitations or shortcomings of this method of statistical analysis. Linear regression assumes that the relationships between variables are linear and that the variables themselves are continuous in nature. Linear regression is therefore not useful to examine variables that are binary or dichotomous (i.e., variables that only have two possible outcomes, such as gender).

This week continues your exploration of correlation and relationships between variables in quantitative research studies, focusing on the concepts of linear regression. This week also provides an overview of the concepts and applications of logistic regression, especially as it pertains to the health care field and evidence-based practice. Last week you examined the uses and methods of simple linear regression as a basis for this type of analysis. This week, you expand on those basic concepts and explore multiple regression, which can be used to show relationships between more than two variables.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Analyze, interpret, and report results of a linear regression analysis
  • Analyze, interpret, and report results of a logistic regression analysis
  • Assess the application of logistic regression in nursing research and practice

Discussion 1: Peer Support: Linear Regression

Using this Discussion, post questions you have about using SPSS and collaborate with your colleagues to complete Assignment 5, assigned and due this week. The questions you post will not only give you the opportunity to address any problems you encounter and assist your colleagues, but will also give your Instructor an idea of the challenges and successes you and your classmates are experiencing. This will allow your Instructor to identify overall areas in which there is a lack of comprehension and areas of mastery and complete understanding, which will be useful in better explaining SPSS in future online courses.

Note: You do not earn any points for participating in this Discussion. It is not required that you participate; however, it is an opportunity for you to connect with your colleagues to discuss the statistical exercises.

Post your responses to the Discussion based on the course requirements.

Discussion 2: Logistic Regression in Nursing Practice

Logistic regression is used to analyze a wide variety of variables that may surround a singular outcome. For example, logistic regression could be used to identify the likelihood of a patient having a heart attack or stroke based on a variety of factors including age, sex, genetic characteristics, weight, and any preexisting health conditions. The biological systems and issues with which the health care field is concerned represent the kinds of applications for which logistic regression is especially useful.

Logistic regression is used in the health care field for many purposes, including diagnoses, predictions, and forecasting. The three articles in this week’s Learning Resources illustrate the many uses of logistic regression in the health care field. This Discussion allows you to explore the different uses of logistic regression and cultivate a deeper understanding of the application of logistic regression in evidence-based practice.

Note: This Discussion takes place in small groups, which should have been assigned by your Instructor.

To prepare:

  • Review the three articles in this week’s Learning Resources and evaluate their use of logistic regression. Select one article that interests you to examine more closely in this Discussion
  • Critically analyze the article you selected considering the following questions:
    • What are the goals and purposes of the research study the article describes?
    • How is logistic regression used in the study? What are the results of its use?
    • What other quantitative and statistical methods could be used to address the research issue discussed in the article?
    • What are the strengths and weaknesses of the study?
    • How could the weaknesses of the study be remedied?
    • How could findings from this study contribute to evidence-based practice, the nursing profession, or society?

By Day 3

Post a cohesive response in your small group that addresses the following:

  • In the first line of your posting, identify the article you examined, providing its correct APA citation.
  • Post your critical analysis of the article as outlined above.
  • Propose potential remedies to address the weaknesses of each study.
  • Analyze the importance of this study to evidence-based practice, the nursing profession, or society.

Read a selection of your colleagues’ postings in your small group.

By Day 6

Respond to two of your colleagues in your small group in one or more of the following ways:

  • Ask a probing question, substantiated with additional background information, evidence, or research.
  • Share an insight from having read your colleagues’ postings, synthesizing the information to provide new perspectives.
  • Offer and support an alternative perspective using readings from the classroom or from your own research in the Walden Library.
  • Validate an idea with your own experience and additional research.
  • Make a suggestion based on additional evidence drawn from readings or after synthesizing multiple postings.
  • Expand on your colleagues’ postings by providing additional insights or contrasting perspectives based on readings and evidence.

Note: Please see the Course Syllabus and Discussion Posting and Response Rubric for formal Discussion question posting and response evaluation criteria.

Return to this Discussion in a few days to read the responses to your initial posting. Note what you learned and/or any insights you gained as a result of the comments made by your colleagues.

Be sure to support your work with specific citations from this week’s Learning Resources and any additional sources.

Post your responses to the Small Group Discussion based on the course requirements.

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NURS 8200/NURS 8200F/NURS 8200M/NURS 8200C/NURS 8200A Week 8: Quantitative Methods: Nonparametrics

Think back to the material you learned in Week 5 about t tests and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Recall that these two types of parametric tests are used to examine the differences in the means of data sets to determine the relationships between variables. For example, when diagnosed with diabetes, does participating in a nutritional program improve weight loss and reduce blood sugar levels? You may also recall that parametric tests assume normal distributions and equal variations among data sets. A limitation of parametric tests lies in the reality that not all experimental data follow these patterns.

Because of this, nonparametric statistical methods were developed to analyze data sets that do not follow normal patterns of distribution and do not have consistent variation. There are many types of nonparametric methods that are useful in different situations and for different purposes. This week, you examine the application of nonparametric statistical analysis methods.

You will also begin working to complete the CITI Program human subject’s protection training course. As you know, there are many ethical considerations when conducting research, and Walden University requires that all students complete this training prior to conducting any research activities.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Analyze the use of nonparametric statistical tests in a research study
  • Assess a common type of statistical analysis in your practice area
  • Successfully complete the human protection in research training

NURS 8200 Entire Course Weekly Discussions And Assignments

Researchers must make informed choices about the type of statistical analysis that best addresses the research question. For the past several weeks, you have been considering how and when a particular statistic should be employed. This week, you have focused on the use of nonparametric tests.

Nonparametric methods are useful to researchers in performing statistical analyses of quantitative data sets that do not follow normal distributions and that have inconsistent variation. Nonparametric methods are often applied when ordinal-level data are collected and, as such, rely on fewer assumptions than their parametric counterparts.

In this Discussion, you examine the two articles in this week’s Learning Resources, both of which employ nonparametric methods of statistical analysis. In addition, as the final week of exploring quantitative statistics, you consider which statistical method is most frequently used in your area of nursing practice.

Note: This Discussion takes place in small groups, which should have been assigned by your Instructor.

To prepare:

  • Review the articles presented in this week’s Learning Resources and analyze each study’s use of nonparametric tests.
  • Critically analyze each article, considering the following questions in your analysis:
    • What are the goals and purpose of the research study each article describes?
    • How are nonparametric tests used in each study? What are the results of their use?
    • Why are parametric methods (t tests and ANOVA) inappropriate for the statistical analysis of each study’s data?
    • What are the strengths and weaknesses of each study (e.g., study design, sampling, and measurement)?
    • How could the findings and recommendations of each study contribute to evidence-based practice in the health care field?
  • Reflect on the quantitative statistical analyses presented throughout this course in the research literature, the Learning Resources, media presentations, and those articles you reviewed for your abbreviated research proposal.
  • Ask yourself: Which method is most commonly used in research studies that pertain to my area of nursing practice, and why this might be so?

By Day 3

Post a cohesive response in your small group that addresses the following:

  • Critically analyze each article, including the items noted above.
  • Identify one statistical analysis method that you found recurring in many of the articles you used in your literature review for your research proposal. This method does not necessarily have to be nonparametric.
  • Based on your area of nursing practice, which method of statistical analysis is most frequently used in the research literature? Why do you think other forms of statistical analysis are less frequently used? Provide a rationale for your response.

Read a selection of your colleague’s postings in your small group.

By Day 6

Respond to at least two of your colleagues in your small group in one or more of the following ways:

  • Ask a probing question, substantiated with additional background information, evidence, or research.
  • Share an insight from having read your colleagues’ postings, synthesizing the information to provide new perspectives.
  • Offer and support an alternative perspective using readings from the classroom or from your own research in the Walden Library.
  • Validate an idea with your own experience and additional research.
  • Make a suggestion based on additional evidence drawn from readings or after synthesizing multiple postings.
  • Expand on your colleagues’ postings by providing additional insights or contrasting perspectives based on readings and evidence.

Return to this Discussion in a few days to read the responses to your initial posting. Note what you learned and/or any insights you gained as a result of the comments made by your colleagues.

Be sure to support your work with specific citations from this week’s Learning Resources and any additional sources.

Post your responses to the Discussion based on the course requirements.

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NURS 8200/NURS 8200F/NURS 8200M/NURS 8200C/NURS 8200A Week 9: Methods of Qualitative Research

In the past eight weeks of this course, you focused on quantitative research concepts and methods and have been critically evaluating a quantitative research study. This week allows you to step outside the realm of quantitative research and begin an examination of qualitative research concepts and methods.

Whereas quantitative research is based on numerical data, statistics, and mathematical approaches, qualitative research involves rich descriptions, critical analyses, and investigations into the conceptual nature of experiences and occurrences. Qualitative methods of study and analysis allow researchers to present vivid details and engage in logical and ethical discussions.

This week, you begin to explore the different concepts and methodologies related to qualitative research. You also consider challenges to performing qualitative research, including issues related to ethics. You formulate the basic components of a qualitative research study of your choice and discuss the application of qualitative methodologies to evidence-based practice.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Differentiate among phenomenology, ethnography, and grounded theory
  • Using one of the qualitative approaches, formulate a research question for a qualitative research study and anticipate challenges

NURS 8200 Entire Course Weekly Discussions And Assignments

The process of formulating a qualitative research study is very similar to that of a quantitative research study. A qualitative research study, like its quantitative counterpart, begins with a broad topic of interest, which is then narrowed down to a specific research question or set of questions about which the researcher would like to gather data. As with all research, it is important for the researcher to identify an appropriate methodology to provide a focus for the procedures of gathering data in a qualitative study.

To prepare:

  • Using the Learning Resources as a guide, determine a qualitative research topic that is of interest to you and applies to a clinical practice area.
  • With your selected topic, formulate at least one research question that could serve as the basis for a qualitative research study.
  • Consider which of the following qualitative research methods would best address your selected research question: phenomenology, ethnography, or grounded theory. Why is that method appropriate?
  • Anticipate any issues (related to ethics, credibility, management, funding, etc.) you might encounter if you were to engage in this research project, and consider how you would handle them.
  • Ask yourself: What other qualitative methods could be used to address my selected qualitative research topic? What are the strengths and weaknesses of these methods?

By Day 3

Post a cohesive response that addresses the following:

  • Summarize your selected qualitative research topic and research question(s) and identify your selected methodology for gathering data about the question(s). Explain why you chose that particular methodology and how it would be useful to the qualitative research topic you selected.
  • Identify and elaborate on the challenges (related to ethics, credibility, management, funding, etc.) you might encounter if you were to engage in this research project.
  • Describe the strengths and weaknesses of your selected research method (phenomenology, ethnography, and grounded theory) in terms of the research project you selected.
  • Discuss at least one other qualitative method that could be used to research your selected topic.

Read a selection of your colleagues’ postings.

By Day 6

Respond to at least two of your colleagues in one or more of the following ways:

  • Ask a probing question, substantiated with additional background information, evidence, or research.
  • Share an insight from having read your colleagues’ postings, synthesizing the information to provide new perspectives.
  • Offer and support an alternative perspective using readings from the classroom or from your own research in the Walden Library.
  • Validate an idea with your own experience and additional research.
  • Make a suggestion based on additional evidence drawn from readings or after synthesizing multiple postings.
  • Expand on your colleagues’ postings by providing additional insights or contrasting perspectives based on readings and evidence.

Note: Please see the Course Syllabus and Discussion Posting and Response Rubric for formal Discussion question posting and response evaluation criteria.

Return to this Discussion in a few days to read the responses to your initial posting. Note what you learned and/or any insights you gained as a result of the comments made by your colleagues.

Be sure to support your work with specific citations from this week’s Learning Resources and any additional sources.

Post your responses to the Small Group Discussion based on the course requirements.

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NURS 8200 Entire Course Weekly Discussions And Assignments

NURS 8200/NURS 8200F/NURS 8200M/NURS 8200C/NURS 8200A Week 10: Qualitative Methods: Collecting, Analyzing, and Interpreting

Consider the process of interviewing prospective candidates for a job position. The interviewer should have a good understanding of the job position—its duties, requirements, and dynamics. From that understanding, the interviewer can develop a strategy for questioning the candidates to determine their attributes, skills, and knowledge that are applicable to the job position. After the interviews have been conducted, the interviewer reviews his/her notes on each candidate, compares the candidates’ strengths and weaknesses, and finally makes a decision regarding who to hire.

You can consider this process as a form of qualitative research; the interviewer acts as the researcher and tries to answer the research question (“Who should I hire?”) by gathering descriptive data on the research subjects (the prospective candidates), analyzing that data, and drawing a conclusion (deciding who to hire). Just as an interviewer develops a strategy for gathering information about candidates and then making a hiring decision based on that information, qualitative researchers also formulate data collection tactics and employ strategic methods of analyzing the data after they have been collected.

This week, you delve into the methods of qualitative data collection, analysis, and interpretation. You consider how the various methods of data collection promote rigor and credibility in qualitative research studies. You also have the opportunity to apply the strategies of coding and analyzing the data in your classmates’ Introduction posts in the Class Café.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Evaluate the rigor of qualitative research and methods therein
  • Apply the techniques of coding and analyzing qualitative data

Which method of research provides the best evidence for nursing practice? Is there a place for both quantitative and qualitative research in evidence-based practice? How do these research methods improve patient outcomes?

Return to and reflect on your thoughts and postings from Week 1’s Discussion on the respective characteristics, strengths, and limitations of quantitative and qualitative research. Consider the uses of each type of research in the health care field. Also reflect on the amount of quantitative versus qualitative research that exists in the health care field in particular. There is an impression among some researchers that qualitative research is inferior to, easier than, or not as rigorous as quantitative research.

In this Discussion, you consider the idea of rigor, or thoroughness and scope of study, with regard to qualitative research. You examine the methods of qualitative research outlined and recommended in this week’s Learning Resources and how they aim to create standards of rigor by which to assess qualitative studies. You also have the opportunity to assess an article of your choice in terms of rigor and recommended methods of qualitative data collection.

To prepare:

  • Consider your readings about and understanding of quantitative and qualitative research. If you had to choose, which type of research (quantitative or qualitative) do you think is more rigorous and why? Do you think it is useful to make such generalizations and comparisons?
  • Locate an article describing a qualitative research study related to a health care topic.
  • Formulate a research question to address the problem and that would lead you to employ correlational statistics.
  • With information from the Learning Resources in mind, critically analyze your selected study. Ask yourself: How rigorous was the study in terms of the researchers’ efforts, the data collected, and the conclusions drawn? What might the researchers have done to improve the rigor?

By Day 3

Post a cohesive response that addresses the following:

  • Do you think there is one type of research (quantitative or qualitative) that is inherently more rigorous than the other? If so, identify which one and why. If not, discuss your reasoning.
  • Post a brief summary of your research article analysis and the correct APA citation for the article.
  • Outline how the study’s qualitative data collection and analysis did, or did not, promote rigor, provide scientific or systematic scaffolding, and/or generate a more thorough analysis of the research topic.

Read a selection of your colleagues’ postings.

By Day 5

Respond to at least one of your colleagues, critiquing their research question and hypotheses and pointing out factors that may influence the strength of the correlation of the variables. Be sure to provide a rationale for your responses in one or more of the following ways:

  • Ask a probing question, substantiated with additional background information, evidence, or research.
  • Share an insight from having read your colleagues’ postings, synthesizing the information to provide new perspectives.
  • Offer and support an alternative perspective using readings from the classroom or from your own research in the Walden Library.
  • Validate an idea with your own experience and additional research.
  • Make a suggestion based on additional evidence drawn from readings or after synthesizing multiple postings.
  • Expand on your colleagues’ postings by providing additional insights or contrasting perspectives based on readings and evidence.

Note: Please see the Course Syllabus and Discussion Posting and Response Rubric for formal Discussion question posting and response evaluation criteria.

Return to this Discussion in a few days to read the responses to your initial posting. Note what you learned and/or any insights you gained as a result of the comments made by your colleagues.

Be sure to support your work with specific citations from this week’s Learning Resources and any additional sources.

Post your responses to the Discussion based on the course requirements.

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NURS 8200 Entire Course Weekly Discussions And Assignments

NURS 8200/NURS 8200F/NURS 8200M/NURS 8200C/NURS 8200A Week 11: Mixed Methods

Imagine trying to paint a picture using only half of the color palette. There are many famous works of art that are monochromatic or use only a limited spectrum of colors, and there is no doubt that you can create a respectable picture using only blues, greens, and purples. However, it is sometimes useful and necessary to use the entire color spectrum to paint a richer, more vibrant masterpiece.

The same holds true for the two methods of research—quantitative and qualitative. There are many successful research studies that have employed only one of these two methods. However, researchers are increasingly turning to mixed methods of research, in which they employ both quantitative and qualitative methods to generate more thorough, comprehensive results and deeper analyses.

This week introduces the concepts and reasoning behind mixed methods research, which combines quantitative and qualitative methods to promote a stronger research design. You examine different models for mixed methods research and triangulation of data, and you consider the appropriate application of mixed methods. You also complete the NIH training.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Evaluate mixed methods for obtaining qualitative and quantitative evidence related to clinical practice
  • Successfully complete the human protection in research training

NURS 8200 Entire Course Weekly Discussions And Assignments

Many clinical practice issues are sufficiently complicated that neither a purely quantitative or qualitative approach can generate a comprehensive perspective of the issue. Particularly for investigating evaluative questions—such as the effectiveness of a program or treatment or the impact of a policy—some combination of quantitative and qualitative methods can be much more illuminating than relying on one method alone.

In this Discussion, you consider the use of a mixed-methods design in health care research studies.

To prepare:

  • With the Learning Resources in mind, and reflecting on what you have explored throughout this course, consider the benefits of using a mixed-methods research approach.
  • Brainstorm nursing practice situations in which using a mixed-methods design would be beneficial. Select one situation to focus on for the purposes of this Discussion. Consider how the quantitative and qualitative data would complement one another to provide a richer analysis and conclusion.
  • Also consider the challenges you might encounter in using a mixed-methods approach: data collection, analysis, or synthesis of qualitative and quantitative findings.

By Day 3

Post a cohesive response to the following:

  • Briefly explain your selected situation and why utilizing a mixed-methods approach would be beneficial.
  • Evaluate how the quantitative and qualitative data would complement one another.
  • Discuss the challenges you might encounter in using mixed methods for the situation you selected and how would you address these challenges.

Read a selection of your colleagues’ postings.

By Day 6

Respond to at least two of your colleagues in one or more of the following ways:

  • Ask a probing question, substantiated with additional background information, evidence, or research.
  • Share an insight from having read your colleagues’ postings, synthesizing the information to provide new perspectives.
  • Offer and support an alternative perspective using readings from the classroom or from your own research in the Walden Library.
  • Validate an idea with your own experience and additional research.
  • Make a suggestion based on additional evidence drawn from readings or after synthesizing multiple postings.
  • Expand on your colleagues’ postings by providing additional insights or contrasting perspectives based on readings and evidence.

Return to this Discussion in a few days to read the responses to your initial posting. Note what you learned and/or any insights you gained as a result of the comments made by your colleagues.

Be sure to support your work with specific citations from this week’s Learning Resources and any additional sources.

Post your responses to the Small Group Discussion based on the course requirements.

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