NURS 6501: Advanced Pathophysiology  Entire Course Weekly

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NURS 6501: Advanced Pathophysiology  Entire Course Weekly

NURS 6501 Entire Course Weekly Discussions And Assignments

NURS 6501 Week 1: Basic Concepts of Physiology and Factors That Influence Disease

Imagine the pain, suffering, and frustration patients feel when they find out they have been misdiagnosed with a disease or disorder. Additionally, consider the financial implications and consequences for time-sensitive disorders such as cancer. Since most disorders have multiple symptoms, and these symptoms are often prevalent in more than one disorder, it can be difficult for health care providers to diagnose patients correctly.

As an advanced practice nurse making decisions related to diagnosis and treatment, you need to have an in-depth understanding of the pathophysiology of disorders, as well as factors that influence them. This week, in preparation for your role in evaluating patients, you examine the impact of patient factors on disease. You also explore the pathophysiology of disorders and resulting alterations in cellular function.

Learning Objectives
Students will:

  • Evaluate the impact of patient factors on disease
  • Analyze the pathophysiology of alterations in cellular function
  • Understand and apply key terms, concepts, and principles related to physiology and factors that influence disease

In clinical settings, some of the most common questions that patients ask are Why do I have this? What caused this disorder? Will it ever go away? These emotional questions can be difficult to ask and to answer. However, for patients to come to terms with their diagnoses and adhere to treatment plans, they must have an understanding of factors that might have caused, or continue to impact, their disorders. As an advanced practice nurse, it is important that you are able to explain disorders, associated alterations and symptoms, and changes that might occur within your patients’ bodies.

To Prepare

  • Review this week’s media presentation with Dr. Terry Buttaro. Reflect on the importance of developing an in-depth understanding of pathophysiology.
  • Select a disorder from the following list:
    • Adrenal insufficiency (Addison’s disease)
    • Atherosclerosis
    • Cholelithiasis (gallstones)
    • Colon cancer
    • Cystic fibrosis
    • Hemophilia
    • Nephrolithiasis (kidney stones)
    • Osteoporosis
    • Parkinson’s disease
    • Tuberculosis
  • Select one of the following patient factors: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior. Reflect on how that factor might impact your selected disorder, as well as potential associated alterations and symptoms.
  • Identify the pathophysiology of the associated alterations, including the normal and altered cellular function. Consider both intra- and extra-cellular changes that occur.

By Day 3

Post a brief description of a patient scenario involving the disorder and the factor you selected. Explain how the factor might impact your selected disorder, as well as potential associated alterations and symptoms. Finally, explain the pathophysiology of the associated alterations, including changes in cellular function.

Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking on Submit!

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.

By Day 6

Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days who selected different disorders and factors than you, in the following ways:

  • Share insights on how the factor you selected impacts the pathophysiology of the disorder your colleague selected.
  • Expand on your colleague’s posting by providing additional insights or contrasting perspectives based on readings and evidence.

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NURS 6501: Advanced Pathophysiology  Entire Course Weekly

NURS 6501 Week 2: Compensatory Mechanisms

Whether a person realizes it or not, his or her body regularly uses compensatory mechanisms such as adaptive and maladaptive responses. These compensatory mechanisms help the body respond to stressors or triggers. Perhaps you have heard a patient complain that his or her food “just didn’t go down right,” resulting in a coughing spell. Maybe you have treated a child with scabs on his or her arms and legs. These are automatic physiological responses that a person cannot control and that may sometimes result in adverse health effects, such as hives. As an advanced practice nurse, it is important that you are able to identify the root of compensatory mechanisms and underlying responses. Which compensatory mechanisms are related to which disorders? Is the presenting mechanism positive and adaptive, or is it maladaptive and in need of control? What are appropriate management strategies?

Since the physical and emotional impact of musculoskeletal, autoimmune, and integumentary disorders varies from patient to patient, associated alterations and symptoms vary as well. For this reason, you must have a solid understanding of these disorders in order to properly diagnose patients.

This week you examine compensatory mechanisms and physiological responses of disorders and the pathophysiology of musculoskeletal disorders. You also explore the impact of patient factors on the pathophysiology of disorders and resulting compensatory mechanisms, and the impact of patient factors on the disorders.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Compare maladaptive and physiological responses of immune disorders
  • Evaluate the impact of patient factors on the pathophysiology of immune disorders
  • Compare the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis
  • Evaluate the impact of patient factors on arthritis
  • Analyze the pathophysiology of disorders
  • Assess adaptive responses to alterations
  • Evaluate clinical considerations of disorders
  • Understand and apply key terms, concepts, and principles related to adaptive and compensatory mechanisms
  • Understand and apply key terms, concepts, and principles related to alterations of the musculoskeletal, autoimmune, and integumentary systems

NURS 6501: Advanced Pathophysiology  Entire Course Weekly

Maladaptive responses to disorders are compensatory mechanisms that ultimately have adverse health effects for patients. For instance, a patient’s allergic reaction to peanuts might lead to anaphylactic shock, or a patient struggling with depression might develop a substance abuse problem. To properly diagnose and treat patients, advanced practice nurses must understand both the pathophysiology of disorders and potential maladaptive responses that some disorders cause.

Consider immune disorders such as HIV, psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease, and systemic lupus E. What are resulting maladaptive responses for patients with these disorders?

To Prepare

  • Review Chapter 6 and Chapter 8 in the Huether and McCance text. Reflect on the concept of maladaptive responses to disorders.
  • Select two of the following immune disorders: HIV, psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease, or systemic lupus E (SLE).
  • Identify the pathophysiology of each disorder you selected. Consider the compensatory mechanisms that the disorders trigger. Then compare the resulting maladaptive and physiological responses of the two disorders.
  • Select one of the following factors: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior. Reflect on how the factor might impact your selected immune disorders.

By Day 3

Post a brief description of the pathophysiology of your selected immune disorders. Explain how the maladaptive and physiological responses of the two disorders differ. Finally, explain how the factor you selected might impact the pathophysiology of each disorder.

Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking on Submit!

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.

By Day 5

Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days who selected different immune disorders and/or factors than you, in the following ways:

  • Share insights on how the factor you selected impacts the pathophysiology of the immune disorder your colleague selected.
  • Expand on your colleague’s posting by providing additional insights or contrasting perspectives based on readings and evidence.

Discussion 2: Arthritis

While arthritis impacts nearly 50 million adults in the United States, it is not a disease that is limited to adulthood. Consider the case of Ashley Russell. At the age of 14 months, Ashley was diagnosed with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. As a baby, her parents noticed that her knee was always swollen and that she often wanted to be carried instead of walking on her own (Cyr, 2012). After seeking medical care, Ashley’s underlying disorder was discovered. Arthritis in children is not uncommon. According to the CDC (2011), an estimated 294,000 children under age 18 have some form of arthritis or rheumatic condition. Due to the prevalence of the disorder in both children and adults, you must understand the pathophysiology and symptoms of arthritis in order to properly diagnose and prescribe treatment.

To Prepare

  • Review Chapter 37 in the Huether and McCance text and Chapter 24 in the Hammer and McPhee text. Identify the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Consider the similarities and differences of the disorders.
  • Select two of the following patient factors: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior. Reflect on how the factors you selected might impact the pathophysiology of the disorders, as well as the diagnosis of and treatment for the disorders.

By Day 4

Post a description of the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, including the similarities and differences between the disorders. Then explain how the factors you selected might impact the pathophysiology of the disorders, as well as the diagnosis of treatment for the disorders.

Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking on Submit!

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.

By Day 6

Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days who selected different factors than you, in one or more of the following ways:

  • Offer alternative diagnoses and prescription of treatment options for osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Share an insight from having read your colleague’s posting, synthesizing the information to provide new perspectives.

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NURS 6501: Advanced Pathophysiology  Entire Course Weekly essay help

NURS 6501 Week 3: Neurological System

In the previous weeks, you began to explore the pathophysiology of disorders and compensatory mechanisms. Throughout the remainder of the course, you consider the pathophysiology of disorders specific to the various body systems. You begin with the neurological system because, through nerve stimulation, this system affects every other system and function in the body. Since the scope of the neurological system is so broad, it relates to various disorders, many of which can also be tied to other systems. Consider an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patient presenting with loss of movement in the limbs, severe pain, and difficulty breathing. While the root of these alterations is a neurological disorder, respiratory alterations will also occur. There is often an absence of a clear distinction between body systems and related disorders.

Although you will likely evaluate patients presenting with neurological disorders that range from ALS to seizures and dementia, persistent pain is one of the major complaints in clinical settings. As an advanced practice nurse, it is important that you are able to find the trigger of the pain to properly diagnose and treat patients. This week you examine types of pain, as well as patient factors that impact the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of pain.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Compare types of pain
  • Evaluate the impact of patient factors on the pathophysiology of pain
  • Evaluate the impact of patient factors on the diagnosis and prescription of treatment of pain
  • Understand and apply key terms, concepts, and principles related to the neurological system

NURS 6501: Advanced Pathophysiology  Entire Course Weekly

The neurological system affects all parts and functions of the body through nerve stimulation. Nerves also control the sensation and perception of pain. While pain can be described in a variety of ways, it is essentially labeled according to its duration and source. As an advanced practice nurse evaluating a patient, you need to consider the following questions: Does the pain quickly come and go, or is it persistent and ongoing? Does the pain arise at the source of injury or in another location? In this Discussion, you compare three common types of pain—acute, chronic, and referred.

To Prepare

  • Review this week’s media presentation on the neurological system, as well as Chapter 14 in the Huether and McCance text.
  • Identify the pathophysiology of acute, chronic, and referred pain. Consider the similarities and differences between these three types of pain.
  • Select two of the following patient factors: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior. Reflect on how the factors you selected might impact the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and prescription of treatment for acute, chronic, and referred pain.

By Day 3

Post a description of the pathophysiology of acute, chronic, and referred pain, including similarities and differences between them. Then, explain how the factors you selected might impact the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and prescription of treatment for acute, chronic, and referred pain.

Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking on Submit!

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.

By Day 6

Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days who selected different factors than you, in the following ways:

  • Share insights on how your colleague’s factors impact the pathophysiology of pain.
  • Suggest alternative diagnoses and treatment options for acute, chronic, and referred pain.

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NURS 6501 Week 4: Cardiovascular System, Part 1

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in 2008, over 616,000 people in the United States died of complications related to cardiovascular disorders. This accounts for approximately 25% of deaths in the United States (CDC, 2012). Cardiovascular disorders are also one of the leading causes of illness and death in the world. As an advanced practice nurse, you can help lower the prevalence of these disorders by providing patient education and preventive care services. As you diagnose and recommend care for patients, you must understand the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disorders as well as factors that increase risks.

This week you examine the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disorders. You also explore the impact of patient factors on cardiovascular disorders.
Students will:

  • Analyze the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disorders
  • Evaluate the impact of patient factors on the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disorders
  • Analyze the relationship between hypertension and dyslipidemia to cardiovascular alterations
  • Compare the pathophysiology of chronic venous insufficiency and deep venous thrombosis
  • Evaluate the impact of patient factors on chronic venous insufficiency and deep venous thrombosis
  • Evaluate clinical considerations of chronic venous insufficiency and deep venous thrombosis
  • Understand and apply key terms, concepts, and principles related to alterations of the veins and arteries

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Veins and arteries are vital elements of the cardiovascular system. They carry the blood supply through the body and are essential for proper function. Sometimes veins and arteries malfunction, resulting in cardiovascular disorders. Malfunctions of arteries and veins are similar to malfunctions of a water hose. Consider the structure and function of a hose. A tap releases water, which then travels through the hose and comes out the other end. If the hose has been dormant for several months, dirt and rusty particles might build up inside, resulting in a restricted flow of water. Similarly, buildup of plaque inside the coronary arteries restricts blood flow and leads to disorders such as coronary heart disease. This disease is one of the most common cardiovascular disorders, and according to the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (2011), is the leading cause of death for men and women in the United States. In this Discussion, you examine the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disorders such as coronary heart disease.

To Prepare

  • Review this week’s media presentation on alterations of cardiovascular functions, as well as Chapter 24 in the Huether and McCance text. Identify the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disorders.
  • Select one patient factor: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior. Consider how the factor you selected might impact the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disorders.
  • Select one of the following alterations of cardiovascular disorders: peripheral arterial disease, myocardial infarction, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, or dysrhythmia. Think about how hypertension or dyslipidemia can lead to the alteration you selected.

By Day 3

Post a description of the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disorders, including how the factor you selected might impact the pathophysiology. Then, explain how hypertension or dyslipidemia can lead to the alteration you selected for patients with the factor you identified.

Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking on Submit!

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.

By Day 6

Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days who selected different alterations and factors than you, in one or more of the following ways:

  • Share insights on how the factor you selected impacts the cardiovascular alteration your colleague selected.
  • Offer and support an alternative perspective using readings from the classroom or from your own research in the Walden Library.
  • Validate an idea with your own experience and additional research.

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NURS 6501: Advanced Pathophysiology  Entire Course Weekly

NURS 6501 Week 5: Cardiovascular System, Part 2

Although cardiovascular disorders are commonly associated with adults and older populations, these disorders are quite prevalent in children as well. Cardiovascular disease is the primary cause of death in people under the age of 24 (Children’s Hospital and Health System, 2012). Nevertheless, because it is considered a problem for adults, cardiovascular disorders within pediatric patients are often missed or ignored even when identified. As an advanced practice nurse, you must be able to distinguish normal pediatric cardiac function from abnormal function in order to identify these cardiovascular disorders. In a clinical setting, you might not actually manage and treat all identified disorders, but you need to be able to recognize them and refer patients for specialized care when necessary.

With this in mind, you continue your journey through the cardiovascular system. You examine the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disorders that are prevalent in pediatrics. Additionally, you explore the impact of patient factors on these disorders.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Evaluate the impact of patient factors on diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular alterations
  • Analyze the physiologic progression of anaphylactic shock
  • Evaluate the impact of patient factors on the physiological process of anaphylactic shock
  • Understand and apply key terms, concepts, and principles related to alterations of the cardiovascular system specific to children

At least once a year, the media report on a seemingly healthy teenage athlete collapsing during a sports game and dying of heart complications. These incidents continue to outline the importance of physical exams and health screenings for teenagers, especially those who play sports. During these health screenings, examiners check for cardiovascular alterations such as heart murmurs because they can be a sign of an underlying heart disorder. Since many heart alterations rarely have symptoms, they are easy to miss if health professionals are not specifically looking for them. Once cardiovascular alterations are identified in patients, it is important to refer them to specialists who can further investigate the cause.

Consider the following scenario:

A 16-year-old male presents for a sports participation examination. He has no significant medical history and no family history suggestive of risk for premature cardiac death. The patient is examined while sitting slightly recumbent on the exam table and the advanced practice nurse appreciates a grade II/VI systolic murmur heard loudest at the apex of the heart. Other physical findings are within normal limits, the patient denies any cardiovascular symptoms, and a neuromuscular examination is within normal limits. He is cleared with no activity restriction. Later in the season he collapses on the field and dies.

To Prepare

  • Review the scenario provided, as well as Chapter 25 in the Huether and McCance text. Consider how you would diagnose and prescribe treatment for the patient.
  • Select one of the following patient factors: genetics, ethnicity, or behavior. Reflect on how the factor you selected might impact diagnosis and prescription of treatment for the patient in the scenario.

By Day 3

Post a description of how you would diagnose and prescribe treatment for the patient in the scenario. Then explain how the factor you selected might impact the diagnosis and prescription of treatment for that patient.

Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking on Submit!

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.

By Day 5

Respond to at least two of your colleagues who selected a different factor than you, in one of the following ways:

  • Make a suggestion based on additional evidence drawn from readings or after synthesizing multiple postings.
  • Share insights based on your own experience and additional research.

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Discussion 2: Anaphylactic Shock

The treatment of anaphylactic shock varies depending on a patient’s physiological response to the alteration. Immediate medical intervention and emergency room visits are vital for some patients, while others can be treated through basic outpatient care.

Consider the January 2012 report of a 6-year-old girl who went to her school nurse complaining of hives and shortness of breath. Since the school did not have any medication under her name to use for treatment and was not equipped to handle her condition, she was sent to an emergency room where she was pronounced dead. This situation has raised numerous questions about the progression of allergic reactions, how to treat students with severe allergies, how to treat students who develop allergic reactions for the first time, and the availability of epinephrine in schools. If you were the nurse at the girl’s school, how would you have handled the situation? How do you know when it is appropriate to treat patients yourself and when to refer them to emergency care?

To Prepare

  • Review “Anaphylactic Shock” in Chapter 24 of the Huether and McCance text, “Distributive Shock” in Chapter 10 of the Hammer and McPhee text, and the Jacobsen and Gratton article in the Learning Resources.
  • Identify the multisystem physiologic progression that occurs in anaphylactic shock. Think about how these multisystem events can occur in a very short period of time.
  • Consider when you should refer patients to emergency care versus treating as an outpatient.
  • Select two patient factors different from the one you selected in this week’s first Discussion: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior. Reflect on how the factors you selected might impact the process of anaphylactic shock.

By Day 4

Post an explanation of the physiological progression that occurs in anaphylactic shock. Then, describe the circumstances under which you would refer patients for emergency care versus treating as an outpatient. Finally, explain how the patient factors you selected might impact the process of anaphylactic shock.

Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking on Submit!

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.

By Day 6

Respond to at least two of your colleagues who selected at least one different factor than you in one of the following ways:

  • Share insights on how the factor your colleague selected impacts the pathophysiology of anaphylactic shock.
  • Offer and support an alternative perspective using readings from the classroom or from your own research in the Walden Library.
  • Validate an idea with your own experience and additional research.

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NURS 6501: Advanced Pathophysiology  Entire Course Weekly

NURS 6501 Week 6: Respiratory System

In the United States, there are currently more than 35 million people living with a respiratory disorder; and each year, more than 400,000 people die as a result (American Lung Association, 2012). The prevalence and impact of these disorders makes it essential for advanced practice nurses to have a solid understanding of the respiratory system. In clinical settings, you must be able to appropriately diagnose, treat, and manage care for patients with common disorders such as asthma, bronchitis, and pneumonia. This poses several questions: What are symptoms of respiratory disorders? How are they diagnosed? Are some disorders more prevalent in one patient group over another?

This week you explore the pathophysiology of alterations associated with respiratory disorders. You also explore the impact of patient factors on these disorders.
Students will:

  • Analyze the pathophysiology of respiratory alterations
  • Evaluate the impact of patient factors on respiratory disorders
  • Analyze pathophysiological mechanisms of chronic asthma and acute asthma exacerbation
  • Evaluate the impact of patient factors on chronic asthma and acute asthma exacerbation
  • Evaluate clinical considerations of chronic asthma and acute asthma exacerbation
  • Understand and apply key terms, concepts, and principles related to alterations of the respiratory system

In clinical settings, patients often present with various respiratory symptoms such as congestion, coughing, and wheezing. While identifying a symptom’s underlying illness can be challenging, it is essential because even basic symptoms such as persistent coughing can be a sign of a more severe disorder. Advanced practice nurses must be able to differentiate between moderate and severe respiratory disorders, as well as properly diagnose and prescribe treatment for their patients. For this reason, you must have an understanding of the pathophysiology of respiratory disorders.

Consider the following three scenarios:

Scenario 1:

Ms. Teel brings in her 7-month-old infant for evaluation. She is afraid that the baby might have respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) because she seems to be coughing a lot, and Ms. Teel heard that RSV is a common condition for infants. A detailed patient history reveals that the infant has been coughing consistently for several months. It’s never seemed all that bad. Ms. Teel thought it was just a normal thing, but then she read about RSV. Closer evaluation indicates that the infant coughs mostly at night; and, in fact, most nights the baby coughs to some extent. Additionally, Ms. Teel confirms that the infant seems to cough more when she cries. Physical examination reveals an apparently healthy age- and weight-appropriate, 7-month-old infant with breath sounds that are clear to auscultation. The infant’s medical history is significant only for eczema that was actually quite bad a few months back. Otherwise, the only remarkable history is an allergic reaction to amoxicillin that she experienced 3 months ago when she had an ear infection.

Scenario 2:

Kevin is a 6-year-old boy who is brought in for evaluation by his parents. The parents are concerned that he has a really deep cough that he just can’t seem to get over. The history reveals that he was in his usual state of good health until approximately 1 week ago when he developed a profound cough. His parents say that it is deep and sounds like he is barking. He coughs so hard that sometimes he actually vomits. The cough is productive for mucus, but there is no blood in it. Kevin has had a low-grade temperature but nothing really high. His parents do not have a thermometer and don’t know for sure how high it got. His past medical history is negative. He has never had childhood asthma or RSV. His mother says that they moved around a lot in his first 2 years and she is not sure that his immunizations are up to date. She does not have a current vaccination record.

Scenario 3:

Maria is a 36-year-old who presents for evaluation of a cough. She is normally a healthy young lady with no significant medical history. She takes no medications and does not smoke. She reports that she was in her usual state of good health until approximately 3 weeks ago when she developed a “really bad cold.” The cold is characterized by a profound, deep, mucus-producing cough. She denies any rhinorrhea or rhinitis—the primary problem is the cough. She develops these coughing fits that are prolonged, very deep, and productive of a lot of green sputum. She hasn’t had any fever but does have a scratchy throat. Maria has tried over-the-counter cough medicines but has not had much relief. The cough keeps her awake at night and sometimes gets so bad that she gags and dry heaves.

To Prepare

  • Review the three scenarios, as well as Chapter 27 and Chapter 28 in the Huether and McCance text.
  • Select one of the scenarios and consider the respiratory disorder and underlying alteration associated with the type of cough described.
  • Identify the pathophysiology of the alteration that you associated with the cough.
  • Select two of the following factors: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior. Reflect on how the factors you selected might impact the disorder.

By Day 3

Post a description of the disorder and underlying respiratory alteration associated with the type of cough in your selected scenario. Then, explain the pathophysiology of the respiratory alteration. Finally, explain how the factors you selected might impact the disorder.

Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking on Submit!

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.

By Day 6

Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days who selected a different scenario than you, in one or more of the following ways:

  • Share insights on how the factor you selected impacts the disorder your colleague identified.
  • Ask a probing question regarding the disorder that your colleague identified.
  • Suggest an alternative disorder for the scenario your colleague selected.

Assignment: Asthma

Complications of asthma can be sudden. Consider the case of Bradley Wilson, a young boy who had several medical conditions. He appeared in good health when he went to school, returned home, and ate dinner. However, when he later went outside to play, he came back inside wheezing. An ambulance took him to the hospital where he was pronounced dead (Briscoe, 2012). In another case, 10-year-old Dynasty Reese, who had mild asthma, woke up in the middle of the night and ran to her grandfather’s bedroom to tell him she couldn’t breathe. By the time paramedics arrived, she had passed out and was pronounced dead at the hospital (Glissman, 2012). These situations continue to outline the importance of recognizing symptoms of asthma and providing immediate treatment, as well as distinguishing minor symptoms from serious, life-threatening symptoms. Since these symptoms and attacks are often induced by a trigger, as an advanced practice nurse, you must be able to help patients identify their triggers and recommend appropriate treatment options. For this reason, you need to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms of chronic asthma and acute asthma exacerbation.

To Prepare

  • Review “Asthma” in Chapter 27 of the Huether and McCance text. Identify the pathophysiological mechanisms of chronic asthma and acute asthma exacerbation. Consider how these disorders are similar and different.
  • Select a patient factor different from the one you selected in this week’s Discussion: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior. Think about how the factor you selected might impact the pathophysiology of both disorders. Reflect on how you would diagnose and prescribe treatment of these disorders for a patient based on the factor you selected.
  • Review the “Mind maps—Dementia, Endocarditis, and Gastro-oesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)” media in the Week 2 Learning Resources. Use the examples in the media as a guide to construct two mind maps—one for chronic asthma and one for acute asthma exacerbation. Consider the epidemiology and clinical presentation of both chronic asthma and acute asthma exacerbation.

To Complete

Write a 2- to 3-page paper that addresses the following:

  • Describe the pathophysiological mechanisms of chronic asthma and acute asthma exacerbation. Be sure to explain the changes in the arterial blood gas patterns during an exacerbation.
  • Explain how the factor you selected might impact the pathophysiology of both disorders. Describe how you would diagnose and prescribe treatment for a patient based on the factor you selected.
  • Construct two mind maps—one for chronic asthma and one for acute asthma exacerbation. Include the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical presentation, as well as the diagnosis and treatment you explained in your paper.

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NURS 6501: Advanced Pathophysiology  Entire Course Weekly

NURS 6501 Week 7: Hematological System

Often in the medical field, an emphasis is placed on the importance of the heart and the lungs. While these two organs are vital to the sustainability of life, the blood is what makes the cardiovascular and respiratory systems function—it’s the connection for the heart and lungs. For this reason, disorders of the hematological system can be potentially devastating for patients. Consider the case of Connie Prochnow. Connie was diagnosed with leukemia after seeking medical care for bruising, shortness of breath, and exhaustion. Her blood disorder resulted in alterations that impacted other body systems, including her respiratory system (UW Health, 2012). Since the heart and the lungs rely so heavily on the blood, it is important that hematological disorders are quickly identified and managed.

This week, as you focus on hematological disorders commonly presented to advanced practice nurses, you examine the pathophysiology of anemia. You also explore the impact of patient factors on anemic disorders.

Students will:

  • Analyze the pathophysiology of anemia
  • Compare the pathophysiology of iron deficiency anemia to the pathophysiology of other types of anemia
  • Evaluate the impact of patient factors on anemic disorders
  • Understand and apply key terms, concepts, and principles related to alterations of the hematological system

In clinical settings, advanced practice nurses often encounter patients with blood disorders such as anemia. Consider the case of a 17-year-old girl who is rushed to the emergency room after suddenly fainting. The girl’s mother reports that her daughter has had difficulty concentrating for the past week, frequently becomes dizzy, and has not been eating normally due to digestion problems. The mother also informs the nurse that their family has a history of anemia. With the family history of anemia, it appears that this is the likely diagnosis. However, in order to properly diagnose and treat the patient, not only must her symptoms and family history be considered, but also factors such as gender, ethnicity, age, and behavior. This poses the question: How do patient factors impact the incidence and prevalence of different types of anemia?

To Prepare

  • Review Chapter 21 in the Huether and McCance text. Reflect on the pathophysiological mechanisms of iron deficiency anemia.
  • Select one of the following types of anemia: pernicious anemia, folate deficiency anemia, sideroblastic anemia, chronic inflammation anemia, or post-hemorrhagic anemia. Identify the pathophysiological mechanisms of the anemia you selected.
  • Consider the similarities and differences between iron deficiency anemia and the type of anemia you selected.
  • Reflect on how patient factors such as genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, and behavior might impact these anemic disorders.

By Day 3

Post an explanation of the pathophysiological mechanisms of iron deficiency anemia and the anemia you selected. Compare these two types of anemia, as well as their potential causes. Finally, explain how genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, and behavior might impact the anemic disorders you selected.

Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking on Submit!

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.

By Day 6

Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days who selected different types of anemia than you, in the following ways:

  • Share insights on how the anemia you selected is similar to or different from the one your colleague selected.
  • Discuss how genetic, gender, ethnic, age, and behavioral factors impact the diagnosis and prescription of treatment for anemic patients.

Quiz

This week’s Quiz covers the content you have explored this week. The Quiz may include the following topics:

  • Abnormalities in hemoglobin production and red blood cell division
  • Anemia—aplastic anemia, anemia of chronic disease, folic acid deficiency, iron deficiencies, pernicious anemia, sickle cell, thalassemia
  • Disorders of platelets and coagulation
  • Hemophilia
  • Hodgkin’s lymphoma
  • Leukemia—acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)
  • Lymph nodes as they relate to various types of blood disorders
  • Neoplastic disorders
  • Pathophysiology of benign versus malignant tumors
  • Thrombocytopenia—acquired thrombocytopenia, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP)

By Day 7

Be sure to complete this week’s Quiz

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NURS 6501 Week 8: Gastrointestinal System

During examinations, patients often present with various symptoms. Often, these symptoms overlap multiple disorders within body systems—especially gastrointestinal (GI) disorders—further increasing the difficulty in diagnosing and treating patients. Consider a patient who presents with severe abdominal pain that has persisted for months. At first review, it might be inflammatory bowel disease or irritable bowel syndrome, but upon closer inspection and testing, gastric cancer is found. As this case outlines, it is important that you, as an advanced practice nurse, are able to identify alterations of GI disorders in order to properly diagnose patients or refer them for specialized care when necessary.

This week you examine the pathophysiology of gastrointestinal disorders. You also explore common treatments and the impact of patient factors on these disorders.

Students will:

  • Compare the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disorder and irritable bowel syndrome
  • Analyze treatments for digestive disorders
  • Evaluate the impact of patient factors on digestive disorders
  • Analyze the pathophysiology of gastric acid stimulation and production
  • Evaluate the impact of patient factors on gastrointestinal disorders
  • Evaluate clinical considerations of gastrointestinal disorders
  • Understand and apply key terms, concepts, and principles related to alterations of the gastrointestinal system

Many patient symptoms can be tied to multiple disorders, which may lead to misdiagnoses. For instance, consider two digestive disorders of the gastrointestinal tract—inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome. These two disorders are commonly confused because they present similar symptoms. As an advanced practice nurse, you must know the differences to properly diagnose and treat the disorders. How does the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease compare to the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome? How do treatments for the two disorders compare?

To Prepare

  • Review Chapter 36 in the Huether and McCance text and Chapter 13 in the Hammer and McPhee text.
  • Identify the pathophysiological mechanisms of inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome. Think about similarities and differences between the disorders.
  • Consider common treatments for inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome. Reflect on whether treatments for one disorder would work for the other disorder.
  • Select one of the following patient factors: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior. Reflect on how the factor you selected might impact the pathophysiology of and treatments for each disorder.

By Day 3

Post an explanation of the pathophysiological mechanisms of inflammatory bowel disorder and irritable bowel syndrome, including similarities and differences. Then describe common treatments, addressing whether treatments for one disorder would work for the other disorder. Finally, explain how the patient factor you selected might impact the pathophysiology of and treatments for each disorder.

Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking on Submit!

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.

By Day 6

Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days who selected different treatments and factors than you, in the following ways:

  • Offer alternative common treatments for the disorders.
  • Share insight on how the factor you selected impacts the treatment of alterations of digestive function.

Assignment 1: Gastrointestinal Tract: Disorders of Motility

Jamie is a 3-month-old female who presents with her mother for evaluation of “throwing up.” Mom reports that Jamie has been throwing up pretty much all the time since she was born. Jamie does not seem to be sick. In fact, she drinks her formula vigorously and often acts hungry. Jamie has normal soft brown bowel movements every day and, overall, seems like a happy and contented baby. She smiles readily and does not cry often. Other than the fact that she often throws up after drinking a bottle, she seems to be a very healthy, happy infant. A more precise history suggests that Jamie does not exactly throw up—she does not heave or act unwell—but rather it just seems that almost every time she drinks a bottle she regurgitates a milky substance. Mom thought that she might be allergic to her formula and switched her to a hypoallergenic formula. It didn’t appear to help at all, and now Mom is very concerned.

Cases like these are not uncommon. The mother was concerned and thinking her daughter may have an allergy; she changed to a different formula. However, sometimes babies have immature GI tracts that can lead to physiology reflux as they adapt to normal life outside the uterus. Parents often do not consider this possibility, prompting them to change formulas rather than seeking medical care. As in the case study above, GI alterations can often be difficult to identify because many cause similar symptoms. This same issue also arises with adults—adults may present with symptoms that have various potential causes. When evaluating patients, it is important for the advanced practice nurse to know the types of questions he or she needs to ask to obtain the appropriate information for diagnosis. For this reason, you must have an understanding of common GI disorders such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), peptic ulcer disease (PUD), and gastritis.

To Prepare

  • Review this week’s media presentation on the gastrointestinal system.
  • Review Chapter 35 in the Huether and McCance text. Identify the normal pathophysiology of gastric acid stimulation and production.
  • Review Chapter 37 in the Huether and McCance text. Consider the pathophysiology of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), peptic ulcer disease (PUD), and gastritis. Think about how these disorders are similar and different.
  • Select a patient factor different from the one you selected in this week’s Discussion: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior. Consider how the factor you selected might impact the pathophysiology of GERD, PUD, and gastritis. Reflect on how you would diagnose and prescribe treatment of these disorders for a patient based on this factor.
  • Review the “Mind Maps—Dementia, Endocarditis, and Gastro-oesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)” media in the Week 2 Learning Resources. Use the examples in the media as a guide to construct a mind map for gastritis. Consider the epidemiology and clinical presentation of gastritis.

To Complete

Write a 2- to 3-page paper that addresses the following:

  • Describe the normal pathophysiology of gastric acid stimulation and production. Explain the changes that occur to gastric acid stimulation and production with GERD, PUD, and gastritis disorders.
  • Explain how the factor you selected might impact the pathophysiology of GERD, PUD, and gastritis. Describe how you would diagnose and prescribe treatment of these disorders for a patient based on the factor you selected.
  • Construct a mind map for gastritis. Include the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical presentation, as well as the diagnosis and treatment you explained in your paper.

By Day 7

This Assignment is due.

Assignment 2: The Pathophysiology of Disorders

During the last 5 weeks, you have explored various body systems: neurological, cardiovascular, respiratory, and hematological. These four systems work together along with other body systems to complete a myriad of functions. For this reason, when disorders occur within one body system, it can create potentially devastating effects throughout the entire body. For instance, Parkinson’s disease is a disorder of the central nervous system, yet its alterations actually affect multiple body systems from the cardiovascular system to the gastrointestinal system. In this Assignment, you examine alterations associated with disorders, as well as the impact of the alterations on multiple body systems.

To Prepare

  • From the list below, select a disorder of interest to you:
    • Alzheimer’s disease
    • Asthma in children
    • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
    • Congestive heart failure
    • Hepatic disease (liver disease)
    • Hypertension
    • Hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism
    • Seizures
    • Sepsis
  • Identify alterations associated with your selected disorder. Consider the pathophysiology of the alterations. Think about how these alterations produce pathophysiological changes in at least two body systems.
  • Reflect on how patient factors such as genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, and behavior might impact the pathophysiology of the alterations you identified, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of your selected disorder.
  • Review the “Mind maps—Dementia, Endocarditis, and Gastro-oesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)” media in the Week 2 Learning Resources. Use the examples in the media as a guide to construct a mind map for the disorder you selected. Consider the epidemiology and clinical presentation of your selected disorder.

To Complete

Develop a 5- to 10-slide PowerPoint presentation that addresses the following:

  • Describe your selected disorder, as well as associated alterations. Explain the pathophysiology of the alterations, including changes that occur in at least two body systems.
  • Explain how genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, and behavior might impact the pathophysiology of the alterations you identified, as well as diagnosis and treatment of your selected disorder.
  • Construct a mind map for the disorder you selected. Include the epidemiology, pathophysiology of alterations, risk factors, and clinical presentation, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of the disorder.

By Day 7 of Week 10

The Assignment is due.

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NURS 6501 Week 9: Endocrine System

Disorders of the endocrine system have a significant impact on the body. Consider the effects of unmanaged diabetes. Kali Collins, a 10-year-old Colorado girl, helped prevent a potentially fatal accident after her mother, Erin Bolefahr, went into diabetic shock while behind the wheel. After Erin began driving erratically, Kali phoned for help. Police were able to locate the vehicle and provide medical care to an unresponsive Erin (Huffington Post, 2012). If Erin’s diabetes had been properly managed, her daughter would have never been in such immediate danger. This case emphasizes the importance of properly identifying, treating, and managing diabetes. With diabetes and its associated alterations presenting serious medical complications, it is essential for advanced practice nurses to have a strong understanding of this endocrine disorder. In the clinical setting, patients with diabetes and other endocrine disorders will require extensive patient education and supervised care.

This week you examine the pathophysiology of diabetes. You also explore the impact of patient factors on the disorder.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Compare the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus
  • Evaluate the impact of patient factors on diabetes
  • Understand and apply key terms, concepts, and principles related to alterations of the endocrine system

NURS 6501: Advanced Pathophysiology  Entire Course Weekly

According to the American Diabetes Association (2011), 25.8 million children and adults have been diagnosed with diabetes in the United States. Approximately 2 million more are diagnosed every year, with another 79 million people considered to be in a pre-diabetes state. These millions of people are at risk of several alterations, including heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, neuropathy, and blindness. Since diabetes has a major impact on the health of millions of people around the world, it is essential for nurses to understand the pathophysiology and associated alterations of this disorder. In this Discussion, you compare two types of diabetes—diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus.

To Prepare

  • Review Chapter 19 in the Huether and McCance text and Chapter 18 in the Hammer and McPhee text. Identify the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus. Consider the similarities and differences between resulting alterations of hormonal regulation.
  • Select two of the following patient factors: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior. Think about how the factors you selected might impact the diagnosis and prescription of treatment for these two types of diabetes.

By Day 3

Post an explanation of the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus. Describe the differences and similarities between resulting alterations of hormonal regulation. Then explain how the factors you selected might impact the diagnosis and prescription of treatment for these two types of diabetes.

Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking on Submit!

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.

By Day 6

Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days who selected different factors than you, in one or more of the following ways:

  • Share insights on how the factor you selected impacts the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus.
  • Offer alternative diagnoses and prescription of treatment options for diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus.
  • Validate an idea with your own experience and additional research.

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NURS 6501 Week 10: Renal and Urologic Systems

Disorders of the renal and urologic systems can sometimes pose difficulties in the clinical setting. Patients are often hesitant to seek treatment for symptoms of these disorders because they might be embarrassed or uncomfortable with associated questions and physical examinations. When treating and managing disorders of these systems, it is important for advanced practice nurses to recognize that the causes and/or habits that lead to the disorders can vary significantly between not just children and adults, but also between females and males. Additionally, the consequences of the disorders can vary significantly among different patient groups, making it essential to be able to identify renal and urologic disorders and recommend appropriate treatment options.

This week you examine the pathophysiology of urinary tract infections. You also explore the impact of patient factors on urinary tract infections.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Compare the pathophysiology of lower and upper urinary tract infections
  • Evaluate the impact of patient factors on urinary tract infections
  • Analyze the pathophysiology of disorders within body systems
  • Evaluate the impact of patient factors on disorders within body systems
  • Evaluate clinical considerations of disorders within body systems
  • Understand and apply key terms, concepts, and principles related to alterations of the renal and urologic systems

NURS 6501: Advanced Pathophysiology  Entire Course Weekly

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are caused by bacteria—most often Escherichia coli. However, certain viruses, fungi, and parasites can also lead to infection. The infection can affect the lower and upper urinary tract, including the urethra, prostate (in males), bladder, ureter, and kidney. Due to the progression of the disease and human anatomy, symptoms present differently among the sexes as well as among age groups. It is important to understand how these factors, as well as others, impact the pathophysiology of UTIs. Advanced practice nurses must have this foundation in order to properly diagnose patients.

To Prepare

  • Review Chapter 30 in the Huether and McCance text. Identify the pathophysiology of lower and upper urinary tract infections. Consider the similarities and differences between the two types of infections.
  • Select two of the following patient factors: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior. Reflect on how the factors you selected might impact the pathophysiology of the infections, as well as the diagnosis of and treatment for the infections.

By Day 3

Post a description of the pathophysiology of lower and upper urinary tract infections, including their similarities and differences. Then explain how the factors you selected might impact the pathophysiology of the infections, as well as the diagnosis of and treatment for the infections.

Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking on Submit!

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.

By Day 6

Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days who selected at least one different factor than you, in one or more of the following ways:

  • Offer alternative diagnoses and prescription of treatment options for urinary tract infections.
  • Share an insight from having read your colleague’s posting, synthesizing the information to provide new perspectives.

Assignment: The Pathophysiology of Disorders

By Day 7

Submit the Pathophysiology of Disorders Assignment. This Assignment was presented in Week 8 and is due.

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NURS 6501 Week 11: Reproductive System

Similar to other disorders you have explored throughout this course, those of the reproductive system can result in alterations and symptoms that overlap with disorders in other body systems. Consider a patient presenting with pelvic and abdominal pain. The underlying root of the pain could be related to disorders of organs in the reproductive system, the gastrointestinal system, or both. Once you identify the underlying cause of pain or other symptoms, you must carefully diagnose patients. Since the reproductive system’s ultimate function is to bear children, related disorders can have a significant impact on patients physically and emotionally. As with any disorder, diagnoses must be made with care, as a misdiagnosis can cause undue stress and pain for patients.

This week you examine the pathophysiology of reproductive system disorders. You also explore the impact of patient factors on the disorders.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Compare the pathophysiology of reproductive system disorders
  • Evaluate the impact of patient factors on reproductive system disorders
  • Understand and apply key terms, concepts, and principles related to alterations of male and female reproductive systems

NURS 6501: Advanced Pathophysiology  Entire Course Weekly

While the male and female reproductive systems are unique to each sex, they share a common function—reproduction. Disorders of this system range from delayed development to structural and functional abnormalities. Since many reproductive disorders not only result in physiological consequences but also psychological consequences such as embarrassment, guilt, or profound disappointment, patients are often hesitant to seek treatment. Advanced practice nurses need to educate patients on disorders and help relieve associated stigmas. During patient evaluations, patients must feel comfortable answering questions so that you, as a key health care provider, will be able to diagnose and recommend treatment options. As you begin this Discussion, consider reproductive disorders that you would commonly see in the clinical setting.

To Prepare

  • Review Chapter 22 and Chapter 23 in the Hammer and McPhee text, as well as Chapter 33 and 34 in the Huether and McCance text.
  • Select two disorders of the male and/or female reproductive systems that interest you. Consider the similarities and differences between the disorders.
  • Select one of the following factors: genetics, ethnicity, age, or behavior. Think about how the factor you selected might impact the diagnosis of and treatment for the reproductive disorders.

By Day 3

Post a description of the two reproductive disorders you selected, including their similarities and differences. Then explain how the factor you selected might impact the diagnosis of treatment for the reproductive disorders.

Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking on Submit!

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.

By Day 6

Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days who selected different disorders or factors than you, in one or more of the following ways:

  • Share insights on how the factor you selected impacts the pathophysiology of the disorder your colleague selected.
  • Offer alternative diagnoses and prescription of treatment options for the disorder your colleague selected.
  • Validate an idea with your own experience and additional research.

NURS 6501: Advanced Pathophysiology  Entire Course Weekly

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