NURS 6720: Population-based Public Health Nursing Interventions 

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NURS 6720: Population-based Public Health Nursing Interventions 

NURS 6720 Entire Course Weekly Discussions And Assignments

NURS 6720: Population-based Public Health Nursing Interventions | Week 1

Public health is the science of protecting and improving the health of people and their communities. This work is achieved by promoting healthy lifestyles, researching disease and injury prevention, and detecting, preventing, and responding to infectious diseases. Overall, public health is concerned with protecting the health of entire populations. These populations can be as small as a local neighborhood, or as big as an entire country or region of the world.

Public health professionals try to prevent problems from happening or recurring through implementing educational programs, recommending policies, administering services, and conducting research. In contrast, clinical professionals like doctors and nurses, focus primarily on treating individuals after they become sick or injured. Public health also works to limit health disparities. A large part of public health is promoting healthcare equity, quality, and accessibility (Centers for Disease Control Foundation, 2017).

Public health nurses (PHNs) are an integral part of the public health system. They work to promote the health and well-being of populations in diverse settings through the delivery of population-based care. They might work in public health departments, schools, homes, clinics, jails, shelters, and out of mobile vans. In this advanced practice nursing role, PHNs work with communities, the individuals, families, and aggregates that reside in those communities, and within the systems that impact the communities’ health.

Regardless of where PHNs work or whom they work with, all public health nurses use a core set of interventions to accomplish their goals. Interventions are actions that PHNs take on behalf of individuals, families, systems, and communities to improve or protect health status. This week you will review the Intervention Model framework first introduced in NURS 6710 that defines the scope of public health nursing practice by type of intervention and level of practice. In addition, you will review the primary, secondary, and tertiary levels of intervention toward which PHNs direct their efforts. Over the course of the next eleven weeks, you will have the opportunity to translate the public health nursing knowledge that you are acquiring in a public health setting in which you are completing your practicum.

Learning Objectives

Students will:
  • Analyze public health programs/interventions
  • Create measurable professional development objectives
  • Create detailed time logs*
  • Analyze practicum experiences in the context of public health nursing

Are you prepared to deliver evidence-based public health nursing? This is an ever-present question in the minds of effective public health nurses. The advanced public health nurse is aware that simply inventing a program they want to implement is not appropriate or in the best interest of the population(s) they seek to serve.

For this Discussion, you will review public health programs described in peer-reviewed journal articles. The information you review might spark potential ideas you can use for your own practicum project.

To prepare:

  • Recall the public health issue you selected for NURS 6710.
  • Review the Public Health Journals document provided in the Learning Resources. Explore the journals.
  • Identify an article that focuses on a program/intervention addressing the public health issue that you identified in NURS 6710.
  • Review the Evaluation Criteria for Public Health Program Article Review document prior to reading the article to assist in focusing your review of the article. Record responses to the included sections for your records and to gain practice in analyzing programs.

By Day 3

Based on the reflection section of the Evaluation Criteria for Public Health Program Article Review document, share one strength, one weakness, and a suggestion for improvement for the program of focus in the journal article you selected. Provide the APA citation of the article for your colleagues.

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses

By Day 6

Respond on or before Day 6 to at least two of your colleagues in one or more of the following ways:

  • Ask a question you would direct toward the authors of the program/intervention article to deepen your understanding of the health issue or program/intervention.
  • Offer a suggestion of how you would address the public health issue differently based on your experience and/or review of a different program intervention.

Assignment: Practicum Professional Experience Plan (PPEP)

As reflected in this week’s Discussion, the skills involved in planning public health interventions provide an invaluable opportunity for professional development.

For this Assignment, you will develop a Practicum Professional Experience Plan (PPEP) to outline how your involvement in the practicum will contribute to your growth as a public health nursing professional and allow you to hone your PHN knowledge and skills. The PPEP consists of two or three objectives related to professional development that you will address during your Practicum Experience.

Note: In the practicum manual these are referred to as your individualized learning objectives.

To Prepare:

  • Consider areas for which you would like to gain application-level experience and/or continued professional growth. How can your experiences in the practicum help you achieve these aims?
  • Discuss your professional aims and your proposed practicum professional development objectives with your Preceptor to ascertain if the necessary resources are available at your practicum site.
  • Download and save the Practicum Professional Experience Plan Form provided in this week’s Learning Resources.

To complete your Practicum Professional Experience Plan:

Record the required information in each area of the Professional Practicum Experience Plan, including two or three objectives you will use to facilitate your professional development during the practicum.

By Day 7

Submit the Practicum Professional Experience Plan Form for Faculty review and approval.

When your Instructor has approved your plan, forward the signed PPEP to your Preceptor and retain a copy for your records.

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NURS 6720: Population-based Public Health Nursing Interventions | Week 2

NURS 6720 Week 2: Community Agency Assessment: Information Gathering

Assessment Diagnosis Planning Implementation Evaluation

As you move through the remainder of the course, a real-world example of a public health program targeting infant mortality among African American populations will be presented as an exemplar to illustrate concepts that are covered each week.

Public Health Nursing in Action: Case Scenario

A significant health disparity plaguing the United States is the increased rate of infant mortality seen in various racial and ethnic groups. Infant mortality is used to compare the health and well-being of populations across and within countries. Despite substantial reductions in the overall infant mortality rate over the last few decades, the gap in rates between African Americans and Caucasians has remained high in many parts of the country, including the state of Ohio. This led a public health nurse to develop an intervention with the overall goal of improving health outcomes for mothers and babies living in a low-income urban community of Cincinnati. Over the course of a two-year period, the PHN, as a member of a larger team, conducted an in-depth assessment of this community. This assessment was done in partnership with the residents of the community and a parish nurse agency with a presence in the community. Various sources of information were gathered using the Community as Partner Model. These included state, county, and city health data, social and environmental data, and interviews with key stakeholders: community residents, parish nurses and other health care providers serving the area, and trusted community social service agencies and churches. This assessment highlighted community resources and strengths, and identified opportunities for improvement. One important outcome of this assessment process was the formation of key partnerships with trusted members of the community who served as gatekeepers, thus allowing the PHN (a community outsider) entrance into the community, and access to the community’s residents (insiders).

As a PHN, you will follow the same nursing process you learned in your first nursing program — providing care to individuals. This same process is also used to guide the planning and delivery of population-based care. Over the next 10 weeks, you will explore each of the stages in the nursing process (assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation, and evaluation) as they apply to your specific agency placement and the planning of a public health intervention targeting the populations served by that agency.

This week you will examine the Assessment phase of the nursing process. The following diagram depicts the nursing process. The Assessment phase is highlighted indicating that this is the phase you are focusing on this week. This diagram will be used throughout the course to highlight the phase you are focusing on and where each phase falls in the process.

Assessment Diagnosis Planning Implementation Evaluation

The phase we are focusing on this week, Community assessment, is the act of becoming acquainted with a community. The people and agencies that serve the community are partners with PHNs and have a vital role in contributing to the assessment. During the Assessment phase, PHNs identify factors, both positive and negative, that impact the health of the people in the community. Information gathered during the Assessment phase will be used later to develop strategies for health promotion. The Community as Partner Model (Anderson & McFarland, 2015) will guide this assessment phase.

This week, you will begin the Assessment phase with your orientation to your community agency. As you learn about your agency, you will also gather information about various community agency components that provide the context from which you will promote the health of the community.

As you continue to engage in your practicum, remember to record your hours and activities and reflect on your experiences in your practicum setting. Your Practicum Time Log and Journal are due in Week 3.

Learning Objectives

Students will:
  • Analyze community agency components (A*)
  • Analyze how agency components influence public health issues (A*)
  • Identify focus for practicum projects(P)

*The Assignments related to these Learning Objectives are introduced this week and submitted in Week 3.

Part of your role in working with an agency is to determine the most relevant need(s) of the population(s) the agency serves. This determination leads to the ability to identify a priority issue for intervention. However, you cannot make this determination independently. A first step is working to gain a comprehensive understanding of your community agency. For this Assignment, you begin the process of investigating agency details that will later inform course project intervention decisions.

Note: This Assignment will be based on your practicum site placement.

To Prepare:

  • Review this week’s Learning Resources.
  • Gather information on your specific placement agency through a meeting with your faculty and/or preceptor.

The Assignment:

In a 2-to-3-page paper that addresses the following:

Part 1: Agency Description

Describe each of the following components regarding your specific agency:

  • Mission
  • Vision
  • Strategic plan
  • Stakeholders
  • Population(s) served
  • Issue(s) addressed
  • Environmental climate (social, political, cultural)
    • Sources of funding
    • Community that agency is embedded in and community being served
  • Agency history (where did the funding come from, how did they end up at specific location)

Part 2: Influences on Public Health Issues

Briefly explain how each selected component from Part 1 influences the public health issue of focus

Submit Parts 1 and 2 of this Assignment by Day 7 of Week 3.

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NURS 6720: Population-based Public Health Nursing Interventions | Week 3

NURS 6720 Week 3: Community Agency Assessment: Information Gathering to Determine Intervention Priorities

Assessment Diagnosis Planning Implementation Evaluation

As you move through the remainder of the course, a real-world example of a public health program targeting infant mortality among African American populations will be presented as an exemplar to illustrate concepts that are covered each week.

Public Health Nursing in Action: Case Scenario

As she continued to develop her project aimed at promoting maternal and infant health in a low-income urban community, the PHN sought to make sense of the data that she had collected during her community and agency assessment. In addition to the parish nursing agency, the PHN had formed key partnerships with a neighborhood health center, the community residents’ association, and the Catholic parish located in the heart of the community. Armed with the state and local health data and the results of a community survey she had conducted, the PHN held a series of meetings with key stakeholders to analyze the data and determine a priority nursing diagnosis upon which to focus her intervention. One important conclusion was that the community residents felt a need for a positive focus on their community and the health of infants, rather than the usual negative media attention associated with their neighborhood. Residents expressed a desire for additional education regarding infant health within a framework that acknowledged the cultural strengths of the African American community.

You have collected the data from your agency and the community it serves. Now what? During the Diagnosis phase of the nursing process, you need to carefully examine the data you’ve collected and determine the community health needs as well as community resources and strengths. One really important point to remember is that the community and the people who live there have their own priorities for health and the PHN must take the time to listen and hear what they are saying.

This week, you will analyze data to determine intervention priorities. In addition, you will complete and submit your Practicum Time Log and Journal.

Learning Objectives

Students will:
  • Analyze community agency components
  • Analyze how agency components influence public health issues
  • Evaluate evidence-based interventions for specific populations.
  • Create detailed time logs
  • Analyze practicum experience problems, issues, or situations
  • Apply evidence-based concepts, principles, and theories to practicum

The goal of a public health program is to plan for the greatest community benefit. If the intervention is not evidence-based and not utilized by the intended community, it will not matter that it was a good idea or held high potential for change in health outcomes. Community assessment is complex, and needs to be comprehensive to have a chance at achieving successful outcomes. For the first part of this Assignment, completed last week, you examined detailed information on your agency’s components. This week you will continue your analysis to propose intervention priorities.

Steps in this analysis process include:

  1. Categorizing data – using the categories of the Community as Partner Model as your organizing framework;
  2. Summarizing data – within each category, build your case for your potential priority diagnosis;
  3. Identifying data gaps, inconsistencies, omissions, and differences – compare your data with other similar data of another community;
  4. Drawing inferences – draw logical conclusions from the evidence and synthesize what you know about your community, the agency, and the populations they serve.

To Prepare:

  • Review this week’s Learning Resources
  • Review the information you gathered for the Assignment in Week 2.
  • Consider community resources and other sources of information to expand your knowledge of the public health topic and populations served by your agency.
  • Conduct a literature search to identify at least two evidence-based interventions that could be used to address the health issue of focus.

The Assignment:

In a 2-to-3-page paper:

  • Analyze the information gathered during your assessment, including community data, agency information, and your identified health issue. Summarize your findings.
  • Then, based on your analysis of the agencies components and your literature review, identify and prioritize at least three evidence-based intervention options for the health issue and population that will be the focus of your course project. Justify why you prioritized each evidence-based intervention for your population. Be specific.

You began Part 1: Understanding Your Community Agency in Week 2.

By Day 7

Submit Parts 1 and 2 of this assignment.

Note: This week’s assignment is the artifact for the student portfolio.

The goal of a public health program is to plan for the greatest community benefit. If the intervention is not evidence-based and not utilized by the intended community, it will not matter that it was a good idea or held high potential for change in health outcomes. Community assessment is complex, and needs to be comprehensive to have a chance at achieving successful outcomes. For the first part of this Assignment, completed last week, you examined detailed information on your agency’s components. This week you will continue your analysis to propose intervention priorities.

Steps in this analysis process include:

  1. Categorizing data – using the categories of the Community as Partner Model as your organizing framework;
  2. Summarizing data – within each category, build your case for your potential priority diagnosis;
  3. Identifying data gaps, inconsistencies, omissions, and differences – compare your data with other similar data of another community;
  4. Drawing inferences – draw logical conclusions from the evidence and synthesize what you know about your community, the agency, and the populations they serve.

To Prepare:

  • Review this week’s Learning Resources
  • Review the information you gathered for the Assignment in Week 2.
  • Consider community resources and other sources of information to expand your knowledge of the public health topic and populations served by your agency.
  • Conduct a literature search to identify at least two evidence-based interventions that could be used to address the health issue of focus.

The Assignment:

In a 2-to-3-page paper:

  • Analyze the information gathered during your assessment, including community data, agency information, and your identified health issue. Summarize your findings.
  • Then, based on your analysis of the agencies components and your literature review, identify and prioritize at least three evidence-based intervention options for the health issue and population that will be the focus of your course project. Justify why you prioritized each evidence-based intervention for your population. Be specific.

By Day 7

Submit your Assignment.

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NURS 6720: Population-based Public Health Nursing Interventions | Week 4

NURS 6720 Week 4: Planning a Public Health Program: Phase 1

Assessment Diagnosis Planning Implementation Evaluation

Public Health Nursing in Action: Case Scenario

Armed with the identification of a health issue – African American infant mortality – and strengthened by the community partnerships that she had formed, the PHN in our case scenario moved forward with her key stakeholders in the next phase of the nursing process: Planning. While the long-term goal of this program was to decrease infant mortality rates in Hamilton County, OH, the PHN recognized that the longest journey begins with the first step: setting smaller, more realistic, and achievable intermediate and short-term goals. For example, reviewing the current public health literature revealed an evidence-based strategy. Community health fairs could be used to promote the health of a community through dissemination of information and building bridges between residents and the health care community.

The process for planning a public health program begins with the big picture – the health issue or problem that you have identified. It is an analysis of the big picture issue that provides the framework for developing the plan – from the long-term goal down to intermediate and short-term goals, and then to more specific objectives and strategies that support achievement at each level. Traditionally, long term goals are those that take more than a year to realize. They are very broad and reflect significant outcomes at the population level. Intermediate goals are those that typically are capable of being achieved in three to six months. Finally, short term goals are those that can be achieved more easily in less than three months. These goals reflect the more immediate impact of a health promotion program.

This week, you will start to develop your course project, focusing on details associated with your selected issue of interest and starting the development of your logic model to use as a tool to develop the public health program plan.

Learning Objectives

Students will:
  • Analyze health issues that can be addressed through public health programs
  • Analyze populations impacted by health issues
  • Create logic models*
  • Develop short, medium, and long-term outcomes for intervention plans*
  • Create practicum project goals
  • Justify practicum projects
  • Define methods for implementing practicum projects
  • Develop practicum project evaluation plans

*The Assignments related to these Learning Objectives are introduced this week and submitted in Week 5.

As described in this week’s introduction, the planning of a program starts at the highest level- the topic or issue. The early weeks of this course have provided the opportunity to choose a health issue to carry through the steps of the public health program planning process. For this Discussion, you will share a summary of the topic/issue you plan to focus on and the population(s) impacted.

To Prepare:

  • Review this week’s Learning Resources.
  • Review the handout “Planning a Public Health Intervention”
  • Consider your initial thoughts on a public health program you would want to initiate based on health issues you have discussed with your agency Preceptor.
  • Review the literature and relevant websites describing different aspects of the issue.

By Day 3

Post a summary of the health issue of interest that you will target through the program you plan. In addition, post a description of the population impacted by this health issue – include incidence and prevalence rates, geographic and demographic distribution, etc.

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.

By Day 6

Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days by providing feedback to colleagues with an insight or suggestion based on your agency experience.

Assignment 1:
Course Project: Logic Model Development

Throughout this course you will develop and use a logic model to guide the process of planning a public health program. You will continually adapt this document as you consider different topics throughout the course. Logic models help convey why your program is important as well as the logic behind why you expect it to succeed. A logic model is an iterative tool, providing a framework to revisit throughout program planning, implementation, and evaluation phases. (CDC, n.d.)

Source: Centers for Disease Control, Logic Models, retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/oralhealth/state_programs/pdf/logic_models.pdf

To Prepare:

  • Review this week’s Learning Resources on Logic Models.
  • Choose a style of logic model you would like to use for your project.
  • Consider the advantages of using a Logic Model tool for the planning of your program or project.

Assignment:

Develop a draft of your logic model document

  • Map out the public health program you want to develop
  • Identify short, medium, and long-term outcomes

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NURS 6720: Population-based Public Health Nursing Interventions | Week 5

NURS 6720 Week 5: Planning a Public Health Program: Phase 2

Assessment Diagnosis Planning Implementation Evaluation

This week we continue to explore the Planning Phase of the nursing process as it relates to population-based care and the development of a public health intervention. You will continue refining your logic model this week based on the continued exploration of your health issue and as your program evolves based on feedback from key stakeholders, your faculty, or your peers. Remember, a logic model is a living document. As you reflect on the pieces of your logic model, you might determine that the outcomes that you desire do not necessarily connect to the activities you have planned. Or you might determine that the resources you need for carrying out an activity are not available or realistic. Perhaps you need to change the activities to achieve the outcomes you want, or change the expected outcome to relate better to the activities that you are doing. The beauty of logic models is that they allow us to revisit and revise our initial plan.

Learning Objectives

Students will:
  • Create logic models
  • Develop short, medium, and long-term outcomes for intervention plans

The first draft of your program logic model is due Day 7 of this week.

Discussion:
Open Forum: Developing a Public Health Plan

Peer feedback, collaboration, and idea exchange contribute to the development of your knowledge and skills in public health nursing and overall development as a professional.

Throughout the week use this Discussion area to:

  • Share resources relevant to this course that you have found helpful (articles, websites, academic resources)
  • Ask questions and/or advice related to the development of your public health program design
  • Share insights and/or challenges from your practicum site experiences
  • Share insights and/or challenges regarding logic model development

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NURS 6720: Population-based Public Health Nursing Interventions | Week 6

NURS 6720 Week 6: Assessing and Improving Agency Level Cultural Competence

Consider the client-provider paradigm of cultural competence and its influence on health care delivery, as well as your own experiences as a unique cultural being. In this course we continue to look at the important issue of cultural competence at the organizational level. In the context of health equity with the goal of reducing -and ultimately eliminating-health disparities between groups of people, the cultural competence of health care organizations is critical. To what extent have the health organizations you have worked for in the past exhibited the ability to provide care to communities with diverse populations, values, beliefs, and behaviors? A culturally competent organization brings together knowledge about the different groups of people they serve and transforms that knowledge into standards, policies, and practices that allow for the delivery of culturally competent care.

One important strategy in delivering care to diverse populations is the concept of cultural tailoring of our programs and interventions to be congruent with the cultural beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors of our clients. Cultural understanding and knowledge of the population being served provides the foundation upon which to develop culturally competent programs. How would you measure agency level cultural competence? You will begin to explore these questions this week and reflect on the unique role PHNs have in advocating for social change. You also will continue to develop your course project Logic Model focusing on how culture competency indicators are addressed.

As you continue to engage in your practicum, remember to record your hours and activities and reflect on your experiences in your practicum setting. Your Practicum Time Log and Journal is due in Week 7.

Learning Objectives

Students will:
  • Assess cultural competence of public health agencies
  • Analyze the role of the PHN in advocating for social change
  • Revise logic models

Cultural competence depends on the development of an attitude of acceptance of others among health care providers. Foundational to this attitude of acceptance is an awareness of, sensitivity to, and knowledge of the meaning of culture and its influence in shaping human behavior. Cultural competence is a process that begins with one’s willingness to learn about cultural issues, and proceeds with the commitment to incorporate the importance of culture at all levels of an organization (Anderson & McFarland, 2015). This commitment is operationalized in an organization through the cultural tailoring of services to meet the unique cultural needs of the diverse populations served.

Developing the skills to assess cultural competence on the provider and agency level will prove invaluable as you progress in your career. This area will evolve and continue to move to the forefront as the populations served become increasingly diverse.

For this Discussion, you will begin to assess the cultural competence of your practicum placement agency.

To Prepare:

  • Focus on the different populations within the area/community that your agency provides services to
  • Consider the culture of the providers and its influence on the provided care

By Day 3

Post a brief summary of the cultural competence of your assigned agency in regard to delivery of care to diverse populations. Address the following categories in your assessment, and highlight strengths, as well as opportunities for improvement:

  • Staff attitudes and policy
  • Services
  • Agency-community relationship
  • Training
  • Evaluation

Considering the domain of cultural competence, explain why public health nurses should play a role in advocating for policy and social change. In addition, discuss specific strategies that a public health nurse might use to advocate for cultural competence at the organizational, community, and provider level.

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses

Respond on or before Day 6 to at least two of your colleagues by suggesting at least one way to improve cultural competence within the agency based on your experience and review of scholarly research.

Discussion 2:
Open Forum: Developing a Public Health Plan

Peer feedback, collaboration, and idea exchange contribute to the development of your knowledge and skills in public health nursing and overall development as a professional.

Throughout the week use this Discussion area to:

  • Share resources relevant to this course that you have found helpful (articles, websites, academic resources)
  • Ask questions and/or advice related to the development of your public health program design
  • Share insights and/or challenges from your practicum site experiences
  • Share insights and/or challenges regarding logic model development

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NURS 6720: Population-based Public Health Nursing Interventions | Week 7

NURS 6720 Week 7: Partnerships

It does not matter how good a public health program is, that it is led and staffed by qualified people, that it has funding, and that it has all the best practice quality indicators present. If the intervention is missing true community partnership and buy-in, it will fail.

Essential to achieving the desired outcomes of public health interventions is the active participation of the community. The creation of partnerships to promote community health goes to the heart of the definition of public health. Collaborative partnerships for public health means the full engagement of all individuals who have a stake in the health of the community, from its residents to providers and organizations at the local, regional, state, and national levels. Review the Community as Partner Model (Anderson & McFarland, 2015) to identify the multiple stakeholders who have a vested interest in the health of a community.

This week, through the learning resources you will explore how agencies work with community stakeholders to establish partnerships in achieving program goals, focusing on your practicum placement agency’s approach to community partnership specifically. In addition, you will complete and submit your Practicum Time Log and Journal.

Learning Objectives

Students will:
  • Analyze how agencies gain input from the community
  • Analyze how agencies set priorities
  • Analyze methods for developing effective partnerships
  • Create detailed time logs
  • Analyze practicum experience problems, issues, or situations
  • Apply evidence-based concepts, principles, and theories to practicum experiences

“Without question, collaborative efforts to improve health are essential. Working together, sharing resources, and combining talents enhance the opportunities and likelihood for achieving positive health outcomes. Because of the complexity and cost of today’s health environment, public health agencies and others involved in prevention efforts cannot afford to work in isolation…” (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1459461/)

For this Discussion, you will examine nuances associated with effective partnership for the achievement of positive health outcomes and discuss your placement agency’s approach.

To Prepare

  • Review this week’s Learning Resources
  • Reflect on your experience, observations, and knowledge gained during your agency placement.
  • Consider some partners that interact with the agency, what do they have to gain or lose based on the agency’s effectiveness?
  • Discuss the discussion post questions with your agency preceptor

By Day 3

Post a response to the following questions:

  • How does the agency gain input from the community on their programming?
  • How are priorities set by the agency?

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses

By Day 6

Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days by suggesting an alternative way to gain input from partners or set priorities and a suggestion for how to improve effectiveness with partnerships based on your current or past community agency experience.

Discussion 2:
Open Forum: Developing a Public Health Plan

Peer feedback, collaboration, and idea exchange contribute to the development of your knowledge and skills in public health nursing and overall development as a professional.

Throughout the week use this Discussion area to:

  • Share resources relevant to this course that you have found helpful (articles, websites, academic resources)
  • Ask questions and/or advice related to the development of your public health program design
  • Share insights and/or challenges from your practicum site experiences
  • Share insights and/or challenges regarding logic model development

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NURS 6720: Population-based Public Health Nursing Interventions | Week 8

NURS 6720 Week 8: Program Implementation

Assessment Diagnosis Planning Implementation Evaluation

Public Health Nursing in Action: Case Scenario

In partnership with key stakeholders, the PHN has planned the Bundles of Joy Community Baby Shower event – a health education and case-finding event that targets expectant mothers living in a low-income African American community. Planning for the event was informed by in-depth knowledge of the community and its residents – their strengths and opportunities for improvement. Foundational to the success of the project, the PHN recognized the need for community buy-in. As a result of collaborative assessment, diagnosis, and planning phases, community ownership was in place prior to implementation. Three older women from the community who were each leaders of one of the three community resident boards embraced the program and decided to name themselves the “Bundles of Joy” club. These women advocated on behalf of the event and assisted with all phases of implementation. More importantly, following the inaugural hosting of this event on Mother’s Day weekend, these women led the community in hosting ongoing annual events with the assistance of the program developers as needed.

Implementation is the action phase of the nursing process. This is when you carry out your community-based plan. Implementation is necessary to achieve goals and objectives, but more importantly, the implementation of nursing interventions acts to promote, maintain, or restore health; to prevent illness; and to affect rehabilitation (Anderson & McFarland, 2015, p. 250). There are three important steps to consider in the implementation process. The PHN must promote (1) community ownership and buy-in for the program; (2) implementation of a unified program; and (3) a clear health focus.

In order to achieve the desired outcomes of the intervention, people in the community need to feel a sense of ownership of the program or event. Ownership results from participation in decision-making. As nurses, we are used to “doing for” people. However, as a PHN, your focus must be on “doing with.

Another important factor to consider in the implementation process is the need to implement a unified program. Due to limited resources, programs are often implemented in a piecemeal fashion that minimizes their impact. A unified program requires collaboration and coordination between the agency personnel who will implement the program and the program’s recipients (target population).

Finally, the PHN must maintain a program’s focus on health. Often, community programs lose sight of their focus and veer off course. The levels of prevention as well as the use of logic models during planning can assist with maintaining a health focus.

This week, you will develop an implementation plan for your program and continue the development of your logic model.

Learning Objectives

Students will:
  • Create implementation plans for public health programs/projects
  • Revise logic models

As conveyed throughout this course, many factors contribute to the success of an intervention and it is not until the evaluation phase that you can determine true success. However, if the program intervention is not implemented well, it could lose its proper chance to achieve the intended outcomes. A well thought out implementation plan will help to ensure effective implementation that is focused, evidence based, and clearly aligned to intended outcomes. Moving from broad goals to specific and measurable actions is challenging. For this section of your course project you will begin to think through some key components of an effective implementation plan.

To Prepare:

  • Review this week’s Learning Resources
  • Think about what factors need to be considered for implementation
  • If possible, discuss experiences and lessons learned about program implementation with your placement agency contacts.

Assignment:

Create a 2-to 3-page implementation plan that addresses the following:

  • Partnerships and support
  • Resources (human, financial, etc.)
  • Venue
  • Communication of information (what, how, audience)
  • Competing demands
  • Anticipating unknowns

By Day 7

Submit your assignment.

Discussion:
Open Forum: Developing a Public Health Plan

Peer feedback, collaboration, and idea exchange contribute to the development of your knowledge and skills in public health nursing and overall development as a professional.

Throughout the week use this Discussion area to:

  • Share resources relevant to this course that you have found helpful (articles, websites, academic resources)
  • Ask questions and/or advice related to the development of your public health program design
  • Share insights and/or challenges from your practicum site experiences
  • Share insights and/or challenges regarding logic model development

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NURS 6720: Population-based Public Health Nursing Interventions | Week 9

NURS 6720 Week 9: Program Evaluation Design, Part 1

Assessment Diagnosis Planning Implementation Evaluation

Public Health Nursing in Action: Case Scenario

The PHN recognized the importance of planning for evaluation from the very beginning of the nursing process. This allowed for careful attention to gathering credible evidence to support program evaluation. Planning allowed for both process and outcome evaluations to be completed. Process evaluation used for the Bundles of Joy Community Baby Shower included keeping careful records of agencies and professionals making donations or assisting with the program, including the names of agencies, and strategies for contacting key individuals at those agencies. Process evaluation data? was also gathered the day of the event by tracking attendance numbers and demographic data. Participants were also asked to complete an exit survey to evaluate satisfaction with the program and to collect ideas for improvement of future programs. Outcome evaluation was planned to allow for evaluating short-term, intermediate, and long-term outcomes. Short-term outcomes could be evaluated based on pre- and post-surveys given at various stations throughout the venue, as well as participation in follow-on activities such as installing car seats properly and administering infant first aid. Arrangements were made to contact individuals on a voluntary basis to evaluate intermediate outcomes, such as changes in frequency of prenatal visits. Finally, long-term outcomes could be evaluated based on data collected at the county and community level to determine if there was any changes in infant mortality rates.

Evaluation is the systematic collection of information to reduce uncertainties, improve effectiveness, and make determinations about what programs are doing and affecting. Nurses are trained in their initial programs about the importance of evaluating interventions such as a patient’s response to a disease process, medication, or treatment. Likewise, PHNs must evaluate a community or population’s response to a health threat or event, or to a public health program.

Why is it important to evaluate programs? Evaluation can help keep a project on course and demonstrate its effectiveness. Evaluation also allows measurement of progress being made toward a program’s goals and objectives. While evaluation is the final step in the nursing process, it is linked back to assessment, the first step. Why must you plan for evaluation from the beginning of a project? Because in the words of baseball legend Yogi Berra, “if you don’t know where you’re going, how are you gonna’ know when you get there?”

This week, you will develop an evaluation plan and consider how you might assess the effectiveness of the public health program you are placed with.

Learning Objectives

Students will:
  • Develop evaluation design plans*
  • Determine appropriate evaluation type(s) for a specific program
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of public health programs

*The Assignment related to this Learning Objective is introduced this week and submitted in Week 10.

There are two main types of evaluation: process and outcome. Process (formative) evaluation simply refers to the steps taken along the way toward your final outcomes. It determines if you are doing the right things, in the right way, and at the right time. A process evaluation answers the following questions: Are the critical events in place to assure project success? Is the project working as expected? Are you doing what you said you would do? A process evaluation lets you know what key landmarks or steps you must complete along the way. It looks at what you did and how you did it.

Outcome (summative) evaluation determines if your program made a difference in the health of your target population. Did you achieve your goals? Outcome evaluation measures the effectiveness of care that takes places after the intervention has been delivered. It involves (1) measurement of the community (or target population) response to a program; and (2) interpretation of the degree to which planned goals were met. Outcome evaluation focuses on how the people you serve have changed as a result of your project. It looks at what happened because of what you did, in the short-term, intermediate, and long-term. Short-term outcomes might be reflected in changes in knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Intermediate outcomes refer to changes in behavior. Finally, long-term outcomes refer to changes in a condition or status.

For this section of the course project, you will develop a plan for the evaluation of your public health program.

To Prepare

  • Review this week’s Learning Resources on evaluation
  • Review your logic model and implementation plan. Is an evaluation strategy included?

For this Assignment, you will write a 2-3-page evaluation design plan that explains how you will evaluate your program and addresses the following:

  • How did you determine data needs?
  • How will you collect the data you need?
  • What type(s) of evaluation is most appropriate for your program? Explain.
  • How can the effectiveness of your program be evaluated?
  • Based on the experience at your placement agency, what changes would you make to the program? What is missing? Explain.

Due on Day 7 of Week 10.

Discussion:
Open Forum: Developing a Public Health Plan

Peer feedback, collaboration, and idea exchange contribute to the development of your knowledge and skills in public health nursing and overall development as a professional.

Throughout the week use this Discussion area to:

  • Share resources relevant to this course that you have found helpful (articles, websites, academic resources)
  • Ask questions and/or advice related to the development of your public health program design
  • Share insights and/or challenges from your practicum site experiences
  • Share insights and/or challenges regarding logic model development

Get nursing help on NURS 6720 Week 9: Program Evaluation Design, Part 1, from top-notch nursing essay writers. Order top nursing papers

NURS 6720: Population-based Public Health Nursing Interventions | Week 10

NURS 6720 Week 10: Program Evaluation Design, Part 2

Assessment Diagnosis Planning Implementation Evaluation

How do you demonstrate the effectiveness of your program? Some key questions can guide your thinking. First, what changes do you want to occur as a result of your program? While the case scenario that we’ve been discussing the last few weeks had as the overall goal a reduction in infant mortality, other important changes also took place. Crucial community partnerships were formed between residents, health care providers, and educators. In addition, community members were empowered to take ownership of their own health. Prior to the event, attendees were not even aware of the issue of infant mortality and the disparities facing African Americans. Therefore, the event raised community awareness of a health issue impacting countless lives.

Second, ask yourself how will you know if your program is successful? Remember, it is important to be open to both positive and negative outcomes, as they all contribute to knowledge, growth, and future improvements in program planning.

Third, the PHN must reflect on what stakeholders want to know. How can you create a lasting image of the program and an understanding of its impact for those individuals who were unable to attend?

Finally, upon completion of the evaluation phase of the nursing process, keep in mind that your program has generated new assessment data that needs to be fed back into the very first step of the process: Assessment. This illustrates the continual cycle in the life of a PHN, and the community and residents with whom she or he partners.

This week you will apply that knowledge and skills to carefully evaluating your program with a critical eye. You will also carefully evaluate the effectiveness of your program. This will help you plan for disseminating your project to key stakeholders in Week 11.

As you continue to engage in your practicum, remember to record your hours and activities and reflect on your experiences in your practicum setting. Your Practicum Time Log and Journal is due in Week 11.

Learning Objectives

Students will:
  • Develop an evaluation design plan
  • Determine appropriate evaluation type(s) for a specific program
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of a public health program

By Day 7

Complete and submit a 2 -to- 3-page Program Evaluation Plan.

Discussion:
Open Forum: Developing a Public Health Plan

Peer feedback, collaboration, and idea exchange contribute to the development of your knowledge and skills in public health nursing and overall development as a professional.

Throughout the week use this Discussion area to:

  • Share resources relevant to this course that you have found helpful (articles, websites, academic resources)
  • Ask questions and/or advice related to the development of your public health program design
  • Share insights and/or challenges from your practicum site experiences
  • Share insights and/or challenges regarding logic model development

Get nursing help on NURS 6720 Week 10: Program Evaluation Design, Part 2 , from top-notch nursing essay writers. Order top nursing papers

NURS 6720: Population-based Public Health Nursing Interventions | Week 11

NURS 6720 Week 11: Disseminating Your Results

At the onset of a project, public health nursing professionals should consider how the results of their projects will be disseminated. Developing a dissemination plan will help guide the project and keep the project team focused on the goal. The first question you must consider is “Who is the audience for the results of my project?” In other words, who will benefit from the information? The answer to this question will drive the dissemination plan and determine the communication methods.

Remember, there are many stakeholders with an interest in the outcomes of public health projects. First and foremost, it is crucial to remember that the community is at the center of all we do. The results of any project that is created in partnership with the community must be reported back to the community, or else community trust will be eroded. Each group of potential stakeholders must be identified and careful plans made for communication strategies used for reaching the target audience. For example, a public health nurse who conducts a community-based project aimed at reducing childhood obesity might choose to use social media, flyers, information sheets, blogs, or community forums to share the results with the community audience. Another audience would be the agency or agencies connected with the project. A public health nurse would consider a more professional presentation for this audience. Finally, it is important that public health nursing professionals disseminate the results of their projects to the broader audience of public health experts through publication of articles in peer-reviewed journals such as the ones you explored in Week 1 of this course.

This week, you will share your presentation to communicate your public health design and provide feedback to your peers on their presentations.

Learning Objectives

Students will:
  • Create public health program design presentation
  • Provide peer feedback
  • Create detailed time logs
  • Analyze Practicum Experience problems, issues, or situations
  • Apply evidence-based concepts, principles, and theories to practicum experiences

NURS 6720: Population-based Public Health Nursing Interventions 

This week you will share your presentation of your course project with your peers. As you prepare for this final presentation, keep in mind that this is not merely an academic obligation. The ability to present information effectively is an essential skill for public health nurses. Your ability to inform and communicate evidence-based needs and priorities effectively can lead to increased support for your initiative, behavior change, and/or lead to the achievement of positive health outcomes.

To Prepare:

  • Review your Instructor’s feedback on course project assignments throughout the course.
  • Consider how you would market your public health program
  • Review Course Project Presentation Overview document

By Day 1

Develop and Post to the Discussion Board a 10- to 25-slide PowerPoint presentation that includes the following:

  • Title slide with the following:
    • Title of your Course Project
    • Date
    • Walden University
    • Course number
    • Your name
    • (Do not include the names of your practicum Faculty Member or Preceptor)
  • A summary of the Course Project topic, goal(s), objectives, and rationale
  • A summary of the methodology
  • A summary of the findings
  • Conclusions and recommendations that incorporate an evaluation of the findings in terms of utility and potential for impact within your professional specialty and your practicum organization’s environment
  • Examples of scholarly product(s) developed for the Practicum Project, if applicable (you may use screen shots or scans to incorporate these items into your presentation)
  • A summary slide that properly synthesizes and concludes the presentation
  • A list of references (including a minimum of five scholarly resources), properly
  • formatted using APA style

In addition, you must do the following:

  • Write detailed speaker notes for each slide to complement the slide content.
  • Speaker notes should be clear, in-depth, and function as augmentation of the slide material. Note: These notes should be written with sufficient depth to allow someone else to deliver the presentation.

Make sure the PowerPoint presentation reflects graduate-level writing and presentation standards, with professional-looking graphics and appropriate type style.

By Day 5

Review a selection of your colleagues’ presentations.

Post one or more questions related to the content of the presentation posted by at least one of your colleagues. Be sure to direct your inquiry to someone who has not yet received a question.

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