NURS 6431: Evaluation Methods for Health Information Technology 

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NURS 6431: Evaluation Methods for Health Information Technology

NURS 6431 Entire Course Weekly Discussions And Assignments

NURS 6431 Week 1: The Evolution of Health Informatics, Part 1

As a nurse, you are familiar with the work of Louis Pasteur. Early vaccines and the pasteurization of milk are just two of his prominent contributions to the field of health science. What about the accomplishments of the following individuals: Jean Baptiste Dumas, Antoine Jérôme Balard, Charles Chamberland, and Jean-Baptiste Biot? Do their names sound familiar? Although well respected in their time, these individuals’ names and works are not generally known today; however, they all have one thing in common—they were each mentors or associates of Louis Pasteur. With all great scientists and scientific discoveries, other lesser known or even unknown individuals are instrumental in helping achieve major accomplishments and setting the stage for those who followed.

This week, you are introduced to key pioneers in the field of health informatics, and you explore how their work influences the field today.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Assess the impact of early work in informatics on the current field of informatics
  • Create a flowchart depicting organizational information technology infrastructure

NURS 6431: Evaluation Methods for Health Information Technology

The smartphone has become an increasingly valuable tool in the field of medicine. Because of the phone’s small size and powerful computing capabilities, doctors, nurses, and researchers use these smartphones in a wide range of areas. For example, smartphones can be used as an electrocardiogram, to perform ultrasound procedures, to track patient progress, and as a decision support tool for generating diagnoses (Ozdalga, Ozdalga & Ahuja, 2012). Like most innovative technologies, the smartphone and its applications are a result of many years of incremental research and development.

In this Discussion, you focus on those who set the stage for the field of informatics today. By Day 1, your Instructor will assign you one of the pioneers in the field of informatics to research.

To prepare:

  • Read the articles listed in the Learning Resources for your assigned informatics pioneer.
  • Conduct research in the Walden Library or on the Internet to find additional works by or information about the individual.
  • Determine his or her area of interest and affiliations in the medical world.
  • Reflect on the contributions he or she made to the field of informatics. What most interests you? What most surprises you?
  • Consider how these contributions impact the field of informatics today.
  • Assess why it is important to be familiar with the foundational documents of nursing informatics.

By Day 4

Post an overview of the individual to whom you were assigned, including his or her principal areas of interest and medical affiliations. Highlight the contributions this individual made to the field of informatics, and explain how these contributions impact the field of informatics today. Comment on the importance of being familiar with the foundational documents of nursing informatics.

By Day 6

Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days who researched a different pioneer than you did. Describe what you found most compelling about the information on the individuals researched, and explain how you can use this information to better understand the current state of health informatics.

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NURS 6431: Evaluation Methods for Health Information Technology 

NURS 6431 Week 2: The Evolution of Health Informatics, Part 2

In science, individuals build on the knowledge and experiences of those who came before them, as each generation passes to the next an increased body of knowledge. In health informatics, which is built on ever-advancing technological tools, the field moves forward rapidly as methods, tools, and practices continually evolve.

In Week 1, you were introduced to some of the key pioneers who helped establish the field of health informatics, and you reflected on their achievements. This week, you continue the exploration of the evolution of the field by considering the next generation of HIT informaticists and how they have been able to build on earlier efforts.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Assess the evolution of the field of nursing informatics

NURS 6431: Evaluation Methods for Health Information Technology

Great discoveries can transform the world. In 400 BC, Hippocrates theorized that the body was composed of four “humors”—blood, phlegm, black bile, and yellow bile. Now think of the impact of the seminal work of William Harvey, who, in the 1600s, accurately described the circulation system and the role of the heart for the first time. It was not until the early 1900s that the Austrian biologist Karl Landsteiner identified four distinct blood groups. Today, knowledge about the nature and properties of blood is so complicated that the entire field of blood chemistry is devoted to its study.

This same type of expansion of knowledge within a scientific field is mirrored within the field of informatics. As new technologies develop, subsequent changes occur in the fiel that are, built upon the earlier work of others. In this Discussion, you examine the continuing evolution of the field of health informatics and assess how researchers built on the work of preceding scientists.

You will focus on the following individuals:

  • Joan Ash
  • Nancy Lorenzi
  • Ben Shneiderman
  • Diane Forsythe
  • Chuck Friedman
  • Sue Bakken
  • Patty Brennan
  • Diane Skiba
  • Danny Sands
  • Lucian Leape

To prepare:

  • Select and read at least one article from this week’s Learning Resources for at least five individuals listed above.
  • Consider how the work of each individual has built upon the work of earlier pioneers in the informatics field.
  • Assess the areas of growth in informatics research from the informatics pioneers you researched last week to the individuals you read about this week, and the ways in which health informatics has continued to evolve.
  • Select one individual from this week you found to be of particular interest, and read at least one additional article written by him or her from the list provided in the Learning Resources.
  • Conduct further research to determine recent contributions or additions to the individual’s research.

By Day 3

Post a brief summary of key contributions of the individual you selected. Explain which ideas/accomplishments you found to be most compelling, and why. Assess the evolution of the field of nursing informatics from the first group of pioneers (Week 1 Discussion) to the second generation of HIT nurse informaticists. Provide specific examples of how this evolution is evident in the field.

By Day 6

Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days, using one or more of the following approaches:

  • Share an insight from having read your colleagues’ postings, synthesizing the information to provide new perspectives.
  • Validate an idea with your own experience and additional research.
  • Expand on your colleagues’ postings by providing additional insights or contrasting perspectives based on readings and evidence.

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NURS 6431: Evaluation Methods for Health Information Technology 

NURS 6431 Week 3: Models of Health Informatics Evaluation

As you associate with family, friends, and colleagues, you may have noticed that some individuals are always the first to use a new technology and are comfortable with doing so. Meanwhile, others seem to be the last to switch to any new technology and often are hesitant to do so. Dr. Everett Rogers, a prominent sociologist in the study of innovation, developed a model to describe the adoption of new technologies. He identified the types of individuals who will adopt first and the conditions that promote the adoption of new technology by others. Rogers’ model, Diffusion of Innovations, has been used as the foundation for research in fields as diverse as agriculture, marketing, health care, and health informatics.

Scientific inquiry and research should always be built upon models. Such models provide the lens through which to view a subject matter. Effective health informatics evaluation plans are always based on an underlying model. This week, you are introduced to four of the key models used in health informatics evaluation.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Analyze the use of a model as a component of health informatics evaluation
  • Assess the impact of goals and viewpoint on evaluation planning
  • Create graphic representations of research models in information technology evaluation

NURS 6431: Evaluation Methods for Health Information Technology

Have you ever watched a movie in which the same scene was shown several times but as viewed by different individuals? Or, have you watched a detective show in which the witnesses all had differing accounts? The same can hold true for conducting an evaluation of a health information technology project. How you plan and conduct the evaluation is largely dependent on the viewpoint you assume and the perspective with which you approach the evaluation.

Consider a new patient discharge protocol at a small hospital. Do you want to know how the patient feels about the process? Do you want to gather the opinions of nurses who are using this process? Perhaps you want to determine if it is saving the hospital money by freeing up bed space in a more timely fashion. Obtaining each of these viewpoints would require a different approach. Depending on the goal of your evaluation, the model and viewpoint you opt to use will likely vary.

In this Discussion, determine which evaluation model would be most effective for evaluating the health information technology described in one of the scenarios below. Your Instructor will assign a specific scenario by Day 1 of this week.

  • Scenario 1: You have recently provided a training program to help nurses and physicians become proficient in the use of a new bedside medication verification (BMV) system.
  • Scenario 2: The Chief Medical Officer at your hospital is interested in finding out the impact of a new decision support system on the number of adverse events occurring in the past year.
  • Scenario 3: You are helping with the design of a new outpatient surgery center to be built adjacent to the hospital. You are tasked with evaluating the opinions of physicians, nurses, and the general public toward this facility.

To prepare:

  • Review the information on the types of evaluation models covered in this week’s Learning Resources.
  • Determine which model would be most appropriate to use for evaluation in the scenario to which you were assigned.
  • Consider why the viewpoint of the scenario or situation would impact the model used.
  • View the scenario from a different viewpoint, and consider how a different model might be used.
  • Reflect on the importance of basing an evaluation on a model.

By Day 3

Post which scenario (1, 2, or 3) you were assigned and two different models that could be utilized to approach the evaluation. Explain why you selected those models and how you would use them. Explain why it is important to consider the intended goal of the evaluation and the viewpoint that is selected. Finally, assess the importance of basing an evaluation on a model. Justify your response.

By Day 6

Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days, using one or more of the following approaches:

  • Ask a probing question, substantiated with additional background information, evidence, or research.
  • Offer and support an alternative perspective using readings from the classroom or from your own research in the Walden Library.
  • Make a suggestion based on additional evidence drawn from readings or after synthesizing multiple postings.
  • Expand on your colleagues’ postings by providing additional insights or contrasting perspectives based on readings and evidence.

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NURS 6431: Evaluation Methods for Health Information Technology 

NURS 6431 Week 4: Environmental Scan of Health Information Technology

Health care technology is advancing at a breathtaking pace. The future will place a greater emphasis on research that aims to use new technologies, such as telehealth and Internet-based communication for patients and health care professionals, genetics-based diagnostics, and even smartphone applications, as innovative ways to provide better health care.

—NINH Strategic Plan, 2011, p. 26

Reflect on the health-related technological changes you have seen over the past years. New technologies are changing the way health care professionals treat patients. It is important, as a nurse informaticist, that you stay current on new trends, technologies, innovations, and issues so you can help make data-driven decisions and give credible advice to those in your health organization.

This week, you focus on key issues and trends in the health information technology field. As you review these topics, consider which are most relevant to you, your organization, and your future plans. You also complete Part 1 of your Evaluation Project.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Evaluate the relevance of major topics in health care information technology
  • Assess health care technology evaluation goals and viewpoints for an evaluation plan
  • Create graphic representations of research models in information technology evaluation
  • Critique the applicability of a health information technology (HIT) system to a health care organization
  • Formulate a goal and viewpoint for a health information technology system evaluation plan

NURS 6431: Evaluation Methods for Health Information Technology

The amount of new information and data, and the number of available technologies are growing at an ever-accelerating rate. Did you know that during any given 24 hours, humanity generates enough new information to fill the Library of Congress 70 times (Smolan & Erwitt, 2012)? As a nurse informaticist, it is important to keep current on new developments in the field, but with the rapid pace of change, that effort can be overwhelming. It is easier to keep current with key trends if nurse informaticists focus on selected issues.

In this Discussion, you consider key topics in the field of health care technology. You then consider the different approaches you could take when designing an evaluation in these areas. For example, if you are interested in usability, your goal could be to determine if a system is user friendly from the viewpoint of a nurse. A different goal might be to determine if the location of the system facilitates ease of use from the viewpoint of physicians.

Note: This Discussion serves as practice for the first part of your Evaluation Project. What you derive from your Discussion with colleagues will likely inform the work that you do in Part 1 of the Evaluation Project.

The Discussion focuses on the following major topics in the health care information field:

Implementing HIT Systems

  • Consumer health information
  • Computerized Physician Order Entry (CPOE)
  • Decision support systems
  • Electronic health records (EHR)
  • Tele-medicine and eHealth
  • Nursing documentation

Other Issues Related to the Use of HIT Systems

  • Interoperability
  • Unforeseen consequences
  • Usability

To prepare:

  • Select at least two topics from the lists above that are relevant to your current organization or that are of particular interest to you. Read the articles in this week’s Learning Resources that relate to these topics. Consider why these topics are of interest to you, what relevance they have to health care organizations, and how they impact your professional responsibilities. Choose one topic to be the focus of your Evaluation Project, and consider potential evaluation goals.
  • Determine the viewpoint from which you would approach the evaluation, and why.

By Day 3

Post the two topics you identified as most relevant to your organization or to you personally, and explain why you selected those topics. Identify the topic you selected for your Evaluation Project, and propose three potential evaluation goals for this topic. Identify the viewpoint you would use with each goal, and explain why.

By Day 6

Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days, using one or more of the following approaches:

  • Ask a probing question, substantiated with additional background information, evidence, or research.
  • Offer and support an alternative perspective using readings from the classroom or from your own research in the Walden Library.
  • Expand on your colleagues’ postings by providing additional insights or contrasting perspectives based on readings and evidence.

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NURS 6431: Evaluation Methods for Health Information Technology 

NURS 6431 Week 5: Developing a PICO Question

Sally Smith is a nurse informaticist at the Forest View Hospital in a small midwestern town. The organization has just completed a project: moving to a new, more efficient electronic patient record (EPR) system for capturing and analyzing patient information. The CFO of the hospital, who was hesitant about spending the large amount of money required for the project, now wants justification of the value of the purchase and implementation. She has asked Sally to conduct an evaluation.

Consider how Sally might proceed. Perhaps she wants to determine how the doctors use the system. Or maybe she wants to measure the time it takes for nurses to input data using this system versus the older one. She might even want to evaluate the ease of answering research questions with information stored in the system. In order to effectively address the desired area of interest, Sally chooses to develop a PICO (population/patient problem, intervention, comparison, and outcome) question that clearly articulates what she hopes to determine from the evaluation.

This week, you review the parts of a PICO question, and you develop a question that addresses the evaluation goal and viewpoint for the scenario you selected last week.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Formulate a PICO question for a health information technology evaluation plan
  • Evaluate PICO questions for thoroughness and clarity

Determining the topic of an evaluation is one of the most important steps of the evaluation process. In the process of selecting a topic for evaluation, researchers should reflect on what information needs to be gathered and how it will be used. A PICO question can provide the foundation for this process. The PICO question requires researchers to determine the population to be studied, select the intervention that occurred or will occur (such as a new system), have a baseline with which to compare the evaluation, and finally, have a standard to measure the outcome of the project. Using a PICO question as a guideline helps ensure the evaluation is focused and effective.

In this Discussion, you generate a PICO question that corresponds to the Evaluation Plan Focus you developed last week.

To prepare:

  • Develop a PICO question based on the Evaluation Plan Focus Assignment completed last week.
  • Reflect on why it is important that this question be answered. Identify the “who cares?” factor.

By Day 3

Post a summary of key points (evaluation goal, viewpoint, and model) from your Evaluation Plan Focus Assignment. Post your PICO question. Explain why you developed this question, and why it is important to be considered.

By Day 6

Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days. Critique each of their PICO questions. Do they clearly pose the question to be answered? Are the questions narrow enough but not too narrow? Do the questions accurately reflect the evaluation goal, viewpoint, and model? Provide constructive feedback that will help strengthen each PICO question.

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NURS 6431 Week 6: Evidence-Based Practice in Informatics

Dr. Peter Roget developed the first thesaurus as a personal guide to help improve his vocabulary. It was not until he was 73 years old that he published the first edition of what is now known as Roget’s Thesaurus. The original manuscript contained a list of only 1,500 words. It has now expanded to hundreds of thousands of words, digital versions, foreign language versions, and even a visual version that creates a mind map of your words! Because of the extensive variety of words it contains, a thesaurus is a useful tool for selecting the best key words when searching the literature on a specific topic.

This week, you examine strategies for searching the literature to identify relevant, evidence-based practices for your Evaluation Project. You also begin to develop a synthesis of the literature to inform your Evaluation Project.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Translate a PICO question into criteria for searching the literature
  • Formulate strategies for literature searches
  • Utilize appropriate search resources for identifying relevant information*
  • Develop a synthesis of literature*

NURS 6431: Evaluation Methods for Health Information Technology

Searching for relevant literature on a given topic can sometimes be a frustrating process. In some instances, you might have trouble finding anything at all of relevance, whereas in other cases, you might find overwhelming amounts of potential resources and have to determine which is the most relevant to your search. Literature searches can be very rewarding when you find a perfect evidence-based article or research piece that precisely addresses your area of concern.

For this Discussion, you focus on conducting literature reviews and on locating and identifying the most relevant current literature.

To prepare:

  • Review this week’s Learning Resources on conducting a literature review.
  • Go to the Walden Library website, and explore tools for generating search terms.
  • With your PICO question in mind (regardless of approval status), identify at least 10 different search terms you could use in your literature search.
  • Reflect on how to assess the relevance of specific research to your PICO question.
  • Consider techniques for performing alternate types of searches if few or no resources are located.

By Day 3

Post your PICO question (first draft if not yet approved) and the 10 search terms you plan to use in your literature search. Describe one of the literature search tools you identified in the Walden Library and where it is located. Explain how you can assess the relevance of the research you review. Finally, describe strategies for performing alternate types of searches if initial searches do not yield sufficient resources.

By Day 6

Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days. Review peers’ search terms, and offer alternative or additional terms as appropriate. Provide an additional technique for finding relevant information.

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NURS 6431: Evaluation Methods for Health Information Technology 

NURS 6431 Week 7: Evaluation Methodology Planning

Imagine you have recently started a new job as the first nurse informaticist to be employed in a large community clinic. To prepare you for your duties, you receive the following job description:

Your primary responsibility will be the implementation of health informatics technology systems and all necessary support processes. Your supplemental responsibilities will include developing systems to meet stakeholder desires, planning personnel training, and maintaining current systems. In addition, you will be responsible for implementing and maintaining quality initiatives. All of these duties should be completed in a timely fashion and within budget.

On the first day of work, you are shown to your cubicle, and no further instructions are given. When you attempt to obtain further information, management states that you are in a new position and that they are still unclear about your role. How would you feel? Where would you start? Think of the details not included—such relevant information as what systems are currently in use, the identity of key stakeholders, budgets, and current plans—and how their absence influences your ability to be effective as a nurse informaticist.

The situation above indicates a lack of planning on the health care organization’s part. The organization’s leadership decided hiring a nurse informaticist would be useful but lacked a clearly defined methodology for integrating the field of informatics into their organization. This lack of methodology has promoted a rushed, expensive, and poorly understood hiring and onboarding process. Had the leadership developed a clear methodology, they could have minimized waste and improved understanding.

The same clarity is essential when designing the actual methodology for implementing an evaluation plan. All details of the evaluation procedure should be carefully identified, and the evaluation methodology should be written in unambiguous language. Someone unfamiliar with the project or process should be able to gain a clear picture of what the evaluation addresses and how it will be conducted simply from reading the plan. This week, you consider evaluation methodology planning and what is involved in creating a plan that is thorough and focused.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Analyze the characteristics of strong and weak evaluation methodologies
  • Analyze the process of developing an evaluation methodology plan from a PICO question
  • Create an evaluation methodology plan for a PICO question*

NURS 6431: Evaluation Methods for Health Information Technology

Developing a relevant PICO question that accurately addresses the goal of an evaluation and then locating the most current information on the topic are both key steps in the evaluation process; however, of equal or greater importance is the development of the methodology to gather the data that will answer the PICO question. This is where the evaluator must determine the “who,” “what,” “when,” “where,” and “how” of the evaluation. The evaluation methodology outlines the specific steps that will be taken to complete the evaluation. Who will be involved? What sort of research design should be used? Where is the evaluation taking place? How much time will the evaluation require, and how many participants are needed? How will the evaluation be conducted? It is imperative that the evaluator takes the time to make sure a methodology plan is clear, specific, and thorough.

In this Discussion, you critique a series of poorly constructed evaluation methodology plans, identify areas of weakness, and recommend how they can be improved.

The following scenarios will be used for this Discussion:

Scenario #1: Agnes, the nurse informaticist at a small rural hospital, has been asked to develop an evaluation plan to determine the success of an upcoming training program for the launch of a new computerized nursing documentation system. Agnes has developed the following methodology plan:

“I will speak to participants immediately after the training program to determine the success of the training. They will be asked about the instructor, if the training was a good time length, if there were enough breaks, and if the training location was comfortable. After the implementation, I will ask the physicians and nurses if they like using the new nursing documentation system and how much time it saves them weekly.”

Scenario #2: Maria, a nurse informaticist in a large surgical center, has been asked to develop an evaluation of the implementation of a new Operating Room Management System (ORMS) that includes scheduling, case cart management, and surgical case documentation. Maria has developed the following evaluation methodology plan:

“I will conduct a 30-minute interview with each nurse in the surgical ward to determine his or her impressions of the new ORMS. I will ask them to specify how they log into the system, to detail how often they use it each day, to describe what types of information they utilize, and to provide a detailed list of issues they encounter. I will have the nurses rank 50 different characteristics of the ORMS on a 1 to 100 scale. In addition, I will ask each surgeon to document his or her impressions of the case documentation functions.”

Scenario # 3: The CEO of the hospital system in a major metropolitan area is a brusque, hard-to-please individual. Carl, a newly hired nurse informaticist, has been tasked with developing an evaluation to correspond with the implementation of a health analytic system that the CEO has hand-picked. Carl has developed the following evaluation methodology plan:

“I will arrange one morning where groups of three nurses at a time will have a 15-minute, face-to face meeting with the CEO to both answer his questions and discuss their experiences using the new health analytic system tool. By having this candid dialogue, but without structured questions or parameters, a good overall understanding of the value of the analytic system should be obtained.”

To prepare:

  • Review the three evaluation methodology plans outlined within the scenarios above.
  • Critique each plan. Is it concrete? Is it specific? What are the strengths? Weaknesses?
  • Based on this week’s Learning Resources, recommend at least two changes that would strengthen each plan.
  • Research the Walden Library to find an example in the literature of an evaluation study that has a strong evaluation methodology plan, and assess why you believe it to be strong.
  • Consider your own PICO question and the elements that would need to be included in the methodology plan to adequately answer this question.

By Day 3

Post a brief critique of each of the evaluation methodology plans. Describe how each could be strengthened. Briefly summarize the evaluation study you identified in the Walden Library (include the reference in proper APA format), and explain the elements that made you conclude it has a strong methodology component. Describe how you can utilize what you have observed in both the poor and the strong methodology evaluation plans to ensure that you develop an appropriate methodology to answer your PICO question. Outline specific elements that would need to be clearly identified in your evaluation methodology, and explain why they are important to include.

By Day 6

Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days using one or more of the following approaches:

  • Share an insight from having read your colleagues’ postings, synthesizing the information to provide new perspectives.
  • Validate an idea with your own experience and additional research.
  • Expand on your colleagues’ postings by providing additional insights or contrasting perspectives based on readings and evidence.

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NURS 6431: Evaluation Methods for Health Information Technology 

NURS 6431 Week 8: Tools for Evaluation

Nine out of 10 dentists recommend XYZ toothpaste! Four out of 5 children prefer ABC cereal over all other cereals! Eighty-three percent of all adults surveyed would recommend our services to their friends!

Whether on television, on radio, in print, or on the Internet, statistics are constantly used to promote products, actions, and decisions. Often, these statistics are obtained through the use of surveys; however, just because a survey asks questions, does that make the results valid or reliable? Can the structure and wording of questions skew survey results? Can the developer’s biases unconsciously influence the neutrality of the survey?

These issues are just as applicable to surveys conducted in health care as to surveys of consumer satisfaction. Regardless of the context, designing a quality survey instrument takes time, effort, and a heightened attention to how a surveyed population may be influenced by the survey itself. This week, you examine the use of survey instruments as a part of an evaluation. In your examination, you explore the criteria that determine valid and reliable survey instruments. You also explore the AHRQ Evaluation Survey Compendium, where a number of previously designed and tested instruments are available for use.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Evaluate the appropriateness of a survey tool
  • Evaluate the appropriateness of an evaluation tool
  • Develop a plan for utilizing an evaluation tool in an evaluation process
  • Utilize appropriate search tools for identifying relevant information
  • Develop a synthesis of literature
  • Create a an evaluation methodology plan for a PICO question

The goal of an evaluation is to determine the success of an intervention, a new process, the launch of a new technology, patient satisfaction, or any number of things. Surveys are a popular tool for gathering this type of information. For the results of the evaluation to be meaningful, however, the survey used must be both reliable and valid. What does that entail? A reliable instrument is one that would yield similar results when given to different groups under identical circumstances. For example, if a survey was given to nurses on the use of a certain piece of technology, all respondents would understand the phrasing of the questions the same way. Validity refers to how well the instrument actually measures what it is intended to measure. Determining the reliability and validity of a survey instrument can be complicated and involves the use of statistics. For this reason, many researchers opt to use instruments that are already developed and tested.

For this Discussion, you consider survey instruments that would be appropriate to use in specific situations.

The following scenarios will be used for this week’s Discussion:

  • Scenario 1: A large hospital intends to implement a computerized provider order entry (CPOE) system. In order to get a good idea of its effects, the hospital’s leadership has asked for an evaluation of the CPOE system’s impact 90 days after its initial implementation.
  • Scenario 2: Years ago, the primary hospital for a large, rural county distributed personal data assistants (PDAs) to all of its physicians in an attempt to modernize. After looking at many other more up-to-date mobile systems, physicians and hospital leaders are curious about how their current PDA-based system performs.
  • Scenario 3: The informatics department of one of North America’s largest hospitals is conducting an internal review of its health information technology systems. This review will evaluate the need for any changes to its systems and may serve as justification for different budgetary allocations. Because of its sheer size and the number of personnel it affects, the hospital’s electronic health record system will be a pivotal point of the review.

To prepare:

  • Review this week’s Learning Resources on reliability and validity.
  • Review the AHRQ Evaluation Survey Compendium.
  • Review the scenarios presented above.
  • Using the “Locate a Survey for your Project” tool available on the AHRQ website, identify a survey tool that would be appropriate for use for each scenario.
  • Reflect on the specific characteristics of a valid, reliable survey tool.

By Day 3

Post the unique survey tool you identified for each scenario and a justification for your selections.

By Day 6

Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days, using one or more of the following approaches:

  • Share an insight from having read your colleagues’ postings, synthesizing the information to provide new perspectives.
  • Expand on your colleagues’ postings by providing additional insights or contrasting perspectives based on readings and evidence.

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NURS 6431 Week 9: Identifying Issues or Areas of Concern in an Evaluation Plan

Consider the following:

After completing his evaluation of the installation and use of a series of computer stations for inputting patient data, Mario determines that, although the stations were installed according to the manufacturer’s recommendations, nurses are complaining of backaches from standing and using them. Any remedy for the problem would be costly and time consuming, and it would reflect poorly on Mario.

Despite careful training on the new Electronic Health Record system, Ellen, a nurse informaticist, determines during a safety evaluation that nurses and doctors are both failing to log out after using the system, leaving sensitive information open on the screen. Ellen is new in her job, and the field of nursing informatics is still viewed with some skepticism at her health care organization. She is concerned with the ramifications of publicly identifying those who are improperly using the system.

In addition to the specific details of a course evaluation, such as scope, cost, and time, ethical and safety issues are involved both with conducting evaluations and disseminating findings. When developing an evaluation plan, nurse informaticists must anticipate and mitigate any potential issues or concerns that may arise as a result of the evaluation design itself.

This week, you focus on the ethical issues or concerns that can occur with an HIT implementation and consider how evaluations can prevent issues or mitigate their effects. You also synthesize your Evaluation Project into one cohesive document.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Develop strategies for using evaluations to address ethical issues
  • Synthesize elements of an evaluation plan

NURS 6431: Evaluation Methods for Health Information Technology

A range of ethical issues must be considered in an HIT system implementation. Ethical issues can be related to the appropriate use of decision support systems, privacy and confidentiality, consent for the use of clinical information, and accountability errors. By being aware of potential ethical issues, nurse informaticists may generate evaluation plans that circumvent or address ethical concerns before these concerns hinder a system implementation.

In this Discussion, you analyze potential concerns or issues that could arise during an evaluation, and consider strategies for addressing those concerns.

To prepare:

  • Select one of the following areas, and consider potential ethical issues a nurse informaticist may encounter:
    • appropriate uses and users of decision support systems
    • privacy and confidentiality
    • consent for secondary use of clinical and genetic information in databases
    • accountability or responsibility for errors
  • Using this week’s Learning Resources and at least one additional resource from the Walden Library, identify key concerns within the area you selected.
  • Consider strategies for using evaluations to address these ethical concerns.

By Day 3

Post a summary of the key ethical concerns within the area you selected. Suggest strategies for using evaluations to address ethical issues.

By Day 6

Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days, using one or more of the following approaches:

  • Ask a probing question, substantiated with additional background information, evidence, or research.
  • Share an insight from having read your colleagues’ postings, synthesizing the information to provide new perspectives.
  • Offer and support an alternative perspective using readings from the classroom or from your own research in the Walden Library.

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NURS 6431 Week 10: Opportunities and Limitations of an Evaluation Plan

Every decision carries with it potential opportunities and potential costs. When a decision is made, some options (opportunities) are eliminated, whereas others are enabled. This concept is directly applicable to evaluation plans. The unique features of an evaluation plan promote some opportunities for future application or research and limit others. It is important to carefully consider both opportunities and limitations of a design while planning the evaluation to ensure that you are not limiting the project in unintended ways.

This week, you analyze an evaluation plan’s limitations and opportunities and develop strategies for minimizing unintended consequences. You also conclude your Evaluation Project by generating a presentation of your evaluation plan.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Analyze an evaluation plan for limitations
  • Analyze an evaluation plan for opportunities for further application
  • Develop strategies for minimizing unintended consequences
  • Synthesize elements of an evaluation plan

NURS 6431: Evaluation Methods for Health Information Technology

Just as no two system implementations are the same, no two evaluation plans are, either. Every system implementation has unique attributes that require the development of a unique evaluation plan; however, nurse informaticists may be able to reuse parts of evaluation plans in similar practice settings or expanded research efforts. When considering existing evaluation plans for future use, it is important not to overlook a plan’s limitations. These limitations may lead to unintended consequences if they are not examined with a keen eye.

In this Discussion, you analyze the limitations of your evaluation plan and opportunities for future application. In addition, you develop strategies for minimizing unintended consequences resulting from your own evaluation plan.

To prepare:

  • Review this week’s Learning Resources, focusing on the limitations and opportunities highlighted in the research articles.
  • Review your evaluation plan, assessing the possible limitations.
  • Consider the plan’s contributions to your organization and to nursing as a whole. Assess future opportunities for building on this research.
  • Research the Walden Library for an article detailing unintended consequences of an HIT implementation. Consider strategies for minimizing unintended consequences resulting from your evaluation plan.

By Day 3

Post a brief summary of the limitations of your evaluation plan. Also describe future opportunities that could build upon your evaluation plan. Summarize the article you identified that deals with unintended consequences, and outline strategies for avoiding unintended consequences stemming from your own evaluation plan. Include the reference in proper APA format.

By Day 6

Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days using one or more of the following approaches:

  • Share an insight from having read your colleagues’ postings, synthesizing the information to provide new perspectives.
  • Validate an idea with your own experience and additional research.
  • Expand on your colleagues’ postings by providing additional insights or contrasting perspectives based on readings and evidence.

Note: You may choose to make changes to your evaluation plan based upon this week’s content.

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NURS 6431 Week 11: Presenting Evaluation Plans

In creating an evaluation plan, it is important to solicit advice and feedback from stakeholders (funders, administrators, etc.) familiar with the project you are seeking to evaluate. It is all too easy to become so immersed in the process that seemingly minor details that could eventually have a great impact are overlooked. Seeking the perspective of others helps to ensure that the evaluation is comprehensive and is accomplishing its original intent.

This week, you critique colleagues’ evaluation plans (PowerPoint presentations). You also present your findings about the IT infrastructure of your Practicum site.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Assess evaluation plans based on stakeholder expectations and points of view
  • Critique evaluation plans
  • Evaluate the IT infrastructure of a health care organization

NURS 6431: Evaluation Methods for Health Information Technology

Regardless of the system being evaluated, different stakeholders will want to garner different types of information from an evaluation. For example, an information technology professional may seek information about system errors, a staff manager may want information about time expenditures, and an accountant may want data related to a system’s cost-effectiveness. As the nurse informaticist who is conducting the system evaluations, you must be able to anticipate and cater to the informational demands of stakeholders to help guide the evaluation planning process and produce more meaningful evaluations.

For this Discussion, you assume the perspective of both a funder and a hospital’s chief information officer (CIO) to generate questions on a colleague’s evaluation plan presentation.

To prepare:

  • Review the presentation to which you were assigned.
  • Assuming the role of a funder, formulate three questions you would ask to gather more information about this project.
  • Next, assuming the role of the CIO of a hospital, formulate three questions you would ask to gather more information on this project from an administrative viewpoint.
  • Consider any insights you have gained through reviewing your colleague’s evaluation plan.

By Day 3

Post the title of the presentation you reviewed and the three questions you formulated in the role of a funder, and explain why you chose those questions.

Next, post the three questions you formulated in the role of a hospital CIO, and explain why you chose those questions. Finally, provide a brief critique of the overall evaluation plan.

By Day 5

Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days. Provide additional feedback as to the strengths and weaknesses of each colleague’s evaluation plan/presentation.

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