NURS 6411: Information and Knowledge Management 

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NURS 6411: Information and Knowledge Management 

NURS 6411 Entire Course Weekly Discussions And Assignments

NURS 6411 Week 1: Overview of Information and Database Management Systems

Exactly what is the value of having a database management system in a health care organization?

Consider the Aurora Health Care System in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, which has cared for over 1.2 million patients. According to Phil Loftus, the chief information officer with Aurora, “We are collecting 10 times as much data as we were 10 years ago.” Aurora currently stores over seven terabytes of data. Just one terabyte is equal to one trillion bytes! That is an incredible amount of data to be able to search and access. With all of the health-related data that exists, many health care organizations are exploring new ways to use this data to improve health outcomes and the quality of patient care. For example, “Aurora is using the data to look at effects of length of stay, complications and readmissions” (Groenfeldt, 2012).

As hospitals and other health care organizations seek to streamline and modernize access to health care information, the use of databases has provided the necessary vehicle. This week, you examine the use of databases in the health care field.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Analyze the use of database systems and data in nursing practice
  • Evaluate benefits and challenges of using health care database systems and data

NURS 6411: Information and Knowledge Management 

Although we live in a world completely revolutionized by information, it is important to remember that it is knowledge we are seeking, not information.

—Margaret Wheatley

Every day, nurses and other health care practitioners are challenged with managing large quantities of data and information. Unless this data and information can be translated into knowledge, it will have little meaningful value. Databases and data management techniques, if designed effectively, present health care organizations with the means to quickly and effectively transform data into useful knowledge. The ability to rapidly and accurately transform data into useable knowledge allows health care practitioners to make informed decisions on patient care.

In this Discussion, you consider the types of data stored in a database system. You also examine how this information is used in nursing practice, and reflect on the benefits and challenges of using health care database systems and data.

To prepare:

  • Select a database system that you encounter at work or with which you are familiar. What data points are captured and used by nurses?
  • Consider the kind of data collected and the different elements of that data.
  • Ask yourself: How is information in this database used for nursing practice and patient care? What benefits does the database system provide? What are the challenges of using the system?

By Day 3

Post a description of the system you selected and the types of data that are stored in the system. Explain how this database and the data is used for nursing practice and patient care. Evaluate the benefits and challenges of using the database system and the data

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.

By Day 6

Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days using one or more of the following approaches:

  • Ask a probing question, substantiated with additional background information, evidence, or research.
  • Share an insight from having read your colleagues’ postings, synthesizing the information to provide new perspectives.
  • Validate an idea with your own experience and additional research.
  • Make a suggestion based on additional evidence drawn from readings or after synthesizing multiple postings.

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NURS 6411: Information and Knowledge Management

NURS 6411 Week 2: Application of the Data-Information-Knowledge Model to Database Design

Consider the human brain, a marvel of data collection, interpretation, and application. The brain receives data from a variety of sensors, including the eyes, ears, and skin. It is also involved in internal processes related to heart beat, blood pressure, breathing, and movement. The brain uses data from these multiple sources to make meaning and formulate sophisticated interpretations, which can then be used for decision making.

Similarly, modern data management systems collect, store, analyze, and synthesize data into information. Sharing and applying that information can help advance the development of knowledge. This process of translating data into practical knowledge is illustrated in the data-information-knowledge model.

This week, you investigate information management practices within a health care organization.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Analyze benefits of information management analyses
  • Analyze the connection between mission statement and information management practices
  • Evaluate the use of the data-information-knowledge model to improve practice within health care organizations

NURS 6411: Information and Knowledge Management

The applications of an information management system are only as functional as the humans and computing processes working with the system. In her study in the Journal of Nursing Management, Phillips (2005) refers to good information management as “the use of all information, through organized systems of all forms, whether based on human endeavors, paper methods or information technology” (p. 525). Ultimately, all of an organization’s information use should be in support of its mission. In order for information to be as usable as Phillips suggests, it must progress through the data-information-knowledge continuum. Analyzing an organization’s information management practices helps streamline the conversion of raw data into information that can be used to create knowledge.

In this Discussion, you focus on the information management practices within a health care organization and consider how these practices help support the mission statement of the organization.

To prepare:

  • Referring to the Phillips statement above and this week’s Learning Resources, consider how your current or previous work setting could benefit from an information management analysis.
  • Locate the mission statement for your health care organization or an organization with which you are familiar. Consider how current information management practices support the organization’s mission statement. If there is a lack of evidence of support, what changes could be made to strengthen these practices?
  • Reflect on how data is organized into information, and the information is then used to create knowledge. How is this data-information-knowledge model used in your organization? Consider how using this model could improve practice within your organization.

By Day 3

Post a brief description of your selected organization’s information management practices and an explanation of how the organization could benefit from an information management analysis. Explain the degree to which the organization’s current information management practices support its mission statement and provide suggestions for strengthening these practices. Evaluate the use of the data-information-knowledge model within your selected organization and provide suggestions for how it could be used to improve practice within the organization.

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.

By Day 6

Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days using one or more of the following approaches:

  • Ask a probing question, substantiated with additional background information, evidence, or research.
  • Share an insight from having read your colleagues’ postings, synthesizing the information to provide new perspectives.
  • Validate an idea with your own experience and additional research.
  • Suggest an additional way that the data-information-knowledge process could be used to improve practice.

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NURS 6411: Information and Knowledge Management

NURS 6411 Week 3: Data Concepts, Design, and Modeling

Each task that physicians, nurses, and nurse informaticists undertake within their respective positions generates specific data sets and requires explicit data analyses methods. Therefore, data modeling and database design require a sensitivity to specialized focuses within a health care organization. Consider Mary, for example, a nurse at a large private clinic. Her office manager has asked her to verify how many of the babies born in the last six months were later examined by pediatricians associated with the clinic. What data modeling conditions have to be taken into consideration when designing a database that suits Mary’s task?

This week, you analyze the benefits and challenges associated with data modeling in a health care setting. You also consider how to mitigate database design issues.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Evaluate benefits and challenges of data modeling within health care settings
  • Analyze strategies to mitigate database design issues

NURS 6411: Information and Knowledge Management

The use of databases can significantly improve an organization’s ability to access, share, and apply relevant information. However, despite the wealth of data available in a database, its value is greatly dependent on its design. Designing a database that creates logical data relationships for the end users ensures the best conditions for developing information and knowledge for real-world application.

This Discussion focuses on the importance of thoughtful data modeling and database design. You also consider strategies for mitigating design issues.

To prepare:

  • Review the information in this week’s Learning Resources on data modeling and database design.
  • Reflect on how you have seen these concepts evidenced in a health care organization’s use of databases.
  • Consider the benefits and challenges of data modeling, both generally and within an organization with which you are familiar.
  • Review the six different issues with database design described in “Data Aggregation: A Case Study,” found in this week’s Learning Resources. Have you experienced any of these in your own database use? How could an organization avoid such issues through planning?
  • Select one of the issues and conduct additional research using the Walden Library to locate an article that addresses your selected issue and provides insights into how it can be avoided.

By Day 3

Post the benefits and challenges of data modeling both generally and within a health care organization. Describe the database design issue you selected and briefly summarize your findings (include your reference). Suggest strategies for how this issue could be mitigated in the database planning phase.

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.

By Day 6

Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days using one or more of the following approaches:

  • Expand on your colleagues’ postings by providing additional strategies for mitigating the database design issue.
  • Share an insight from having read your colleagues’ postings, synthesizing the information to provide new perspectives.
  • Make a suggestion based on additional evidence drawn from readings or after synthesizing multiple postings.

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NURS 6411: Information and Knowledge Management

NURS 6411 Week 4: Relational and Entity Relationship Modeling

You have recently taken a new position with the Cloverdale Pediatric Clinic, which has been serving a small community for decades. The doctors and nurses proudly proclaim that they have provided health care for children that are now parents who are bringing in their children for care. The clinic has decided to go digital with all health records and you have been hired to facilitate the process. You spend your first day interviewing the staff. Should children be sorted by family? Would there be an advantage to having parents’ old records linked to their children? What are the most common types of information accessed for each record?

The process of database design requires an understanding of design options and their potential benefits and challenges. In health care environments, there are myriads of differing user requirements that can influence the database design so it is crucial that the database is designed to make the connections that best support the users’ needs.

This week, you continue your exploration of relational and entity-relationship data modeling for health care environments by delving into entity-relationship diagrams and their role in database design. You also complete Part 1 of your Team Database Project.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Analyze challenges associated with balanced database design
  • Analyze the importance of balanced database design
  • Apply rules for developing a relational database model
  • Model data in a health care environment by drawing entity-relationship diagrams
  • Formulate a plan for online collaboration

NURS 6411: Information and Knowledge Management

What is the most important component of a database? Is it the design standards, the processing speed, or the information requirements? The fact is that for a database to be effective, it must have a balance between all three of these areas. However, striking a balance can often be a challenging process that requires design compromises.

For this Discussion, you analyze the challenges of balancing design standards, processing speed, and information requirements when designing a database.

To prepare:

  • Review the information in section 4.3 in the course text, Database Systems: Design, Implementation, and Management.
  • Reflect on the three areas of database design: design standards, processing speed, and information requirements.
  • Consider how you would weigh the importance of each of the three areas in designing a database.

By Day 3

Post an explanation of the challenges of balancing design standards, processing speed, and information requirements when designing a database. Identify the area(s) in which you would be least willing to compromise and explain factors that might influence your decision. Explain the importance of having a balanced database design.

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.

By Day 6

Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days using one or more of the following approaches:

  • Ask a probing question, substantiated with additional background information, evidence, or research.
  • Expand on how your description of balancing the three areas in a database differs from your colleagues’. What can you gain from theirs? Defend the ways you think yours is more appropriate.
  • Validate an idea with your own experience and additional research.

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NURS 6411 Week 5: Fundamentals of Relational Databases in Microsoft Access, Part 1

Throughout this course, you have been exploring how databases are used in health care organizations to store, organize, and navigate large quantities of patient data and information. Before you can develop those databases, however, you need to have a firm grasp of key principles and terminology. This will ensure that you can create a database that will save and retrieve information in the most efficient manner. Microsoft Access is a database application that can be used to simplify the process. It is, therefore, an important and powerful tool for nurse informaticists to have in their toolkit. In order to use it effectively, however, you must understand the structure of a database.

This week, you review some of the key concepts involved in creating a database. In particular, the focus is on examining exactly what is meant by the term relational database. You also gain hands-on experience using Access. You begin working with features in Access including tables and queries.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Analyze the relationship between relational and entity relational databases
  • Develop a conceptual model for a database

When embarking on any new project or learning experience, it is essential that you have a strong foundation of understanding constructed from key concepts and parameters. As you begin your work with databases and database design, you should develop a firm understanding of key concepts and parameters that are critical to the foundation of all database design.

In this Discussion, you examine these key fundamental principles of database design.

To prepare:

  • Review the information in this week’s Learning Resources concerning relational and entity relational databases. Focus on how the two are interconnected.
  • Review information concerning cardinalities and consider what they are, how they are developed, and their role in database design.
  • Review information concerning business rules, what they represent, and how they are reflected in the entity relationship diagrams.
  • Review the conceptual model (Figure Q4.5) on page 150 of your text, Database Systems: Design, Implementation, and Management  Think of a similar example of how each of these concepts would be reflected in a database design for your own organization.

By Day 3

Post a brief analysis of the connection between entity relational modeling and relational databases. Discuss a brief example of a conceptual model that could be used in your own organization and list at least one business rule and two cardinalities that apply to that model.

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.

By Day 6

Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days. Help clarify their explanations of key concepts. For the conceptual model they provided, suggest an additional cardinality that would apply and why it would be necessary to use it.

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NURS 6411 Week 6: Fundamentals of Relational Databases in Microsoft Access, Part 2

In the past several weeks, you have been introduced to the database software, Microsoft Access, and have the opportunity to explore its capabilities for creating tables and establishing relationships. To this point, the focus has been on creating the database. Now, you begin to explore how you get the specific information or data you need out of the database. Reflect for a moment on the types of information that you could use to help in your role as a nurse informaticist. Perhaps you need to know how many patients are being treated for a certain condition, or you may be interested in determining which children are behind on their immunizations. Microsoft Access has the capability to generate a wide range of reports. The possibilities are exciting!

This week, you continue to explore functionalities in Access by generating queries and reports. Also, Part 2 of your Team Database Project is due this week.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Generate a suggestion for using Microsoft Access
  • Develop a plan to design a Microsoft Access database

As you have begun to explore Microsoft Access these past several weeks, you may have encountered challenges with using the software. In these cases, it can be beneficial to share your experiences with colleagues and exchange tips and tricks for using Access.

In this Discussion, you consider your work with Access so far and reflect on the areas that were difficult for you. You also consider areas where you could provide useful advice for others.

To prepare:

  • Review the steps of planning and creating a database using Microsoft Access.
  • Identify an area or step in Access that you have found to be confusing and determine what you could ask a colleague to help clarify the process.
  • Consider an aspect of creating a database, query, or report using Microsoft Access that is easy for you, or a solution to a problem you found on your own. With this in mind, develop a tip for using Access that can assist your colleagues.

By Day 3

Post your question about using Microsoft Access. Describe your challenges and success with creating tables, designing queries, or generating reports in Access, including what you found easy and what areas were the most challenging.

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.

By Day 6

Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days addressing those questions raised to which you can provide input or assistance.

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NURS 6411 Week 7: Database Normalization

One of the many advantages of databases is the reduction of duplicate information. Consider a patient who visits a health care provider once for an initial check-up, and then returns to the same provider several more times for follow-up examinations and tests. For each visit, the patient’s data (home address, insurance information, health history, etc.) is re-entered as a separate entry in the patient’s paper-based medical file and then reshelved. This unnecessary outflow of time and effort can be avoided through the use of an efficient online health care database system.

This week, you appraise data redundancy and data normalization in health care databases.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Analyze normalization of data

The transition into digitized data storage and access systems in health care requires a general adjustment in data capturing techniques. In the days of paper records, redundancy was a standard—information was written and rewritten with each patient visit. Digitized data storage and the normalization of data can help reduce this redundancy. Ideally, a patient can enter a facility and information previously submitted is readily available. The provider can simply apply updates and make adjustments to the information as necessary. This saves the health care provider time and the organization’s information system space. Additionally, this decrease of data input can lead to improved quality and patient safety as fewer diagnostic errors associated with navigating a patient’s information are less likely to occur.

Consider the following scenario:

You have recently been hired by a small community hospital as a nurse informaticist. One of your first responsibilities is to help to convert records to an electronic format. You decide to address the process of ordering medicine for patients and you need to develop a database to address the issue. Currently all of the patient information is contained in an Excel spreadsheet, which contains the following categories: PATIENT ORDER, PATIENT medical record number (MRN), PATIENT Name, Order Number, MEDICATION Name, MEDICATION Description, Quantity, PATIENT Address, and Date Ordered. In designing your database, you need to normalize the data in order to remove redundancies and duplications. What approach will you take to normalize the data?

Note: A PATIENT can have multiple orders but an order can be for only one MEDICATION. Patient medical record number (MRN) and Order Number are the primary keys.

To prepare:

  • Review the information in your course text, Database Systems: Design, Implementation, and Management  on how to normalize data.
    • What form of normalization would use (1NF, 2NF, 3NF)?
    • Illustrate the normalized form for PATIENT ORDER.
  • Reflect on the issues you encountered as you attempted to normalize the list.
  • Consider the consequences of not normalizing data.

By Day 3

Post a brief description of how you would normalize the data from the scenario and your rationale. Describe the challenges that you encountered in determining how to normalize the data. Explain the possible consequences of failing to normalize data.

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.

By Day 6

Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days using one or more of the following approaches:

  • Ask a probing question, substantiated with additional background information, evidence, or research.
  • Offer and support an alternative perspective using readings from the classroom or from your own research in the Walden Library.
  • Validate an idea with your own experience and additional research.

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NURS 6411: Information and Knowledge Management

NURS 6411 Week 8: Database Administration and Security

Consider the following news reports:

UCLA began mailing letters June 5 about the theft of a laptop computer from a locked van at a UCLA blood drive last November. The computer held a database containing personal information from some 145,000 people who have donated blood and platelets to the UCLA Blood and Platelet Center since 1985 (Moster, 2004).

Over 600 patients at the University of California, San Francisco, are being notified of a possible data breach that occurred when a hacker obtained e-mails containing their personal information. UCSF officials say the breach occurred in late September 2009 when a faculty physician in the School of Medicine fell prey to a phishing scam. According to officials, the physician unknowingly provided the user name and password for his/her e-mail account in response to an e-mail message that appeared to come from the university’s internal computer servers (HIPAA Security and Privacy, 2009).

A data security breach of Utah’s state health records was far larger than first reported, with hackers from Eastern Europe now believed to have gained access to private information of some 780,000 patients (Reuters News Agency, 2012).

Health care organizations are continually concerned about unauthorized individuals accessing patient information and medical records. Without proper database security, it can easily happen. Database administration and security is vital to both data maintenance and the integrity of an organization. Insufficient data security poses a significant risk to patients.

This week, you examine the critical importance of security in health care databases and how security risks can be mitigated by addressing common integrity problems in database design.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Analyze strategies for addressing specific database security and integrity risks
  • Analyze the importance of security and integrity in health care databases

NURS 6411: Information and Knowledge Management exam help

Establishing security standards that protect patient data is an important step in the database design process. Protecting the confidentiality of personal health information is not optional; it is mandated under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA). HIPAA violations can result in both fines and legal consequences. Failing to protect private information can also damage a health care organization’s reputation as well as result in the loss of patients’ peace of mind.

For this Discussion, you consider the clinical information systems presented in the case studies below and identify the security and integrity problems and risks that need to be addressed.

Case Study 1:

A busy academic hospital has grown rapidly and acquired multiple clinical information systems that interface with each other. Physicians and practitioners require access to each system and frequently have workflows that require access to multiple systems at the same time. In addition, practitioner responsibilities often require them to complete documentation or access clinical information at home and during off hours.

Case Study 2:

An increase in the number of clinical research studies and the use of undergraduate students as research assistants for subject recruitment was perceived as a risk for a medium-sized academic hospital. Students were enrolled at the hospital-affiliated university but still required a credentialing process to be able to access clinical areas of the hospital and clinical systems. The hospital wants to meet IRB and HIPAA research regulations, and to exceed HIPAA’s minimum necessary principle.

Case Study 3:

As a large multi-specialty academic medical practice, providers are often utilizing laptop computers and mobile devices in patient care and research-related activities. Tracking, securing, and managing the numerous devices to mitigate loss, theft, or other breaches is important to the enterprise.

To prepare:

  • Review the information in this week’s Learning Resources, focusing on the security and integrity of clinical information systems. Consider the importance of security and integrity, as well as the consequences of failing to address these aspects of database design.
  • Select one of the case studies above to examine further for this Discussion.
  • Determine the security or integrity problems in the clinical information system in the case study. What legal, ethical, and organizational risks do these issues pose?
  • Begin to formulate a potential solution or strategy to address the security and integrity problems. How would this solution or strategy mitigate the security or integrity risks you identified?

By Day 3

Post a description of the security and integrity problems identified with regards to the case study you selected. Select at least two specific risks (legal, ethical, or organizational) related to the case study and propose a solution or strategy to address each. Justify your response.

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.

By Day 6

Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days. Respond to those who chose a different case study than the one you selected. Provide additional insights on the problems, risks, and proposed solutions. You must also include an analysis of why it is important for a clinical information system to maintain both security and integrity.

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NURS 6411: Information and Knowledge Management

NURS 6411 Week 9: Information to Knowledge: Data Mining and Warehousing

How can data mining and data warehousing help your health care organization?

Consider the example of Charlotte, who is an informatics analyst working for a multi-state chain of hospitals. The executives to whom she reports have asked her to identify how much time it takes for the different insurance companies with whom they do business to make payments on claims. She has been instructed to pay close attention to claims processed between February 2010 and March 2011. In order to address this task efficiently, Charlotte uses her organization’s data warehousing system, which maintains a centralized source of copies of claims, regardless of the originating hospital. After accessing the database, Charlotte applies data mining techniques to generate new correlations between payment speed, insurance companies, and other variables unique to that time period. Due to her organization’s data mining and warehousing capabilities, Charlotte was able to easily identify the amount of time it took for insurance companies to make payments, as well as speculate on the cause of delays.

Charlotte’s case is just one illustration of the benefits that data warehousing and data mining present to health care organizations.

This week, you examine the relationship between data warehousing and data mining and how they can be applied to benefit health care organizations.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Contrast guided data mining with automated data mining
  • Assess how health care data should be warehoused to allow for data mining
  • Formulate strategies for addressing concerns about of data mining

NURS 6411: Information and Knowledge Management

As discussed in this week’s readings, data warehousing is a method of data storage that allows for streamlined data management and retrieval. Data mining software aids in clarifying the relationships between stored data and assists in retrieving specific information as needed. In health care organizations, the information this process yields can be used to cut costs and improve patient care.

For this Discussion, you explore the concept of data mining from a health care perspective.

To prepare:

  • What are the potential benefits of using data mining in health care?
  • Review the information in the Learning Resources on the different types of data warehousing and how the one selected impacts data mining.
  • Review the Hey article, “The Next Scientific Revolution.” Consider how data mining through machine learning can be applied to health care.
  • Read the section on data mining on pp. 671-673 in the course text, Database Systems: Design, Implementation, and Management and consider how it connects to the content in the Hey article. According to the text, are the data mining techniques Hey describes guided or automated?
  • Using the Walden Library, locate at least one specific example of each type of data mining (guided and automated) in health care. The examples you identify should be different from the examples discussed in the Hey article.
  • Reflect on your initial impressions of automated data mining in health care. What are your thoughts on applying this type of data mining to patient care? Consider possible drawbacks of both guided and automated data mining. What approaches and strategies could be used to address those concerns?
  • Consider any ethical ramifications of using data mining or machine learning as a tool for prognosis.

By Day 3

Post an analysis of how data mining can be beneficial to a health care system. Assess how the type of data warehousing used can impact the ability to mine data. Describe examples of the successful use of guided data mining and automated data mining within health care and cite your source. Describe any reservations you have or ethical issues you foresee in using data mining to provide health care information. What approaches and strategies could be used to address those concerns? Justify your responses.

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.

By Day 6

Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days. Provide additional insights you have on the benefits and drawbacks of using data mining in health care. In addition, outline an approach or strategy that could be used to address the reservations about data mining that your colleagues described.

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NURS 6411: Information and Knowledge Management

NURS 6411 Week 10: Clinical Decision Support Systems

The term clinical decision support system (CDS) refers to data analysis tools that help health care providers access the information they need to make evidence-based clinical decisions. With this technology, evidence-based practices are more easily and accurately applied. Consider for example, an individual who has sporadically sought medical help for abdominal pains and gastric distress symptoms over a span of five years. What might otherwise have appeared as a series of unrelated or minimal events could be analyzed collectively to reveal a potentially more serious condition such as Crohn’s disease or colitis?

This week, you assess features of clinical decision support systems that are available to health care professionals.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Analyze the advantages and disadvantages of using clinical decision support systems
  • Evaluate the use of clinical decision support systems to improve patient care
  • Develop a database to answer a specific clinical question

NURS 6411: Information and Knowledge Management essay help

Decision support systems were first designed and implemented in the corporate world to support business management. The integration of support systems into health care organizations brings a sharpened analysis capacity to data warehousing and data mining. This refined data analysis capability can lead to improved patient care and diagnoses through evaluation of various symptoms, prediction of certain drug interaction outcomes, and much more.

In this Discussion, you explore the use of clinical decision support systems and consider their value in assisting advanced practice nurses in making informed decisions and providing quality health care.

To prepare:

  • Review the information in the Learning Resources focusing on the use of clinical decision support systems.
  • Consider where you seek support for clinical decisions. Do you seek advice from other health care professionals in your organization? Do you use computerized clinical decision support systems? Do you perform your own research? Assess the advantages and disadvantages of each approach.
  • Reflect on how decision support technologies, including databases, might assist nurses in clinical practice.
  • Consider how you can validate the integrity of the data you are using in a clinical decision support system.
  • Peruse the information presented at the Open Clinical website presented in this week’s Learning Resources. Locate an article that focuses on how clinical decision support systems can be used to support or improve patient care. How does the information in the article align with or differ from your own experiences?

By Day 3

Post a description of how you currently seek support for clinical decision making and how you determine the integrity of the information you gather. Analyze the advantages and disadvantages of using computerized clinical decision support systems in clinical practice. Justify your response. Finally, summarize the article you selected from the Open Clinical website and include an evaluation of how computerized clinical decision support systems can be used to improve care.

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.

By Day 6

Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days using one or more of the following approaches:

  • Ask a probing question, substantiated with additional background information, evidence, or research.
  • Share an insight from having read your colleagues’ postings, synthesizing the information to provide new perspectives.
  • Offer and support an alternative perspective using readings from the classroom or from your own research in the Walden Library.
  • Make a suggestion based on additional evidence drawn from readings or after synthesizing multiple postings.

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NURS 6411: Information and Knowledge Management

NURS 6411 Week 11: Standardized Terminologies Applied to Health Care

How important is it to use standardized terminologies and encourage collaboration in health care organizations?

Imagine you are treating a patient who is expressing a problem with breathing. You carefully record in his chart that he has shortness of breath. After the doctor performs her exam, she states that the patient is suffering from dyspnea. When you discuss the case with a fellow nurse, she remarks that she has seen such cases before and it is certainly caused by abnormal breathing patterns. All three diagnoses actually refer to the same condition. The real problem occurs when the information is entered into a database. Which term should be used? Later, if you are trying to identify patients with similar conditions, would you miss some because of the varying terminologies?

Similarly, multiple health care organizations can each have specific data about a patient or illness, but unless the data terminology is standardized, the value of the database system is limited. This standardization is conducive to improving patient care and reinforcing productive communication between nurses, doctors, and other health care personnel.

This week, you familiarize yourself with the importance of standardized terminologies for data storage and retrieval. You also focus on the relationship between clinical information systems and standardized terminologies in database design.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Assess the use of standardized terminologies in databases and clinical information systems
  • Analyze the importance of standardized terminologies for data retrieval

NURS 6411: Information and Knowledge Management exam help

Have you ever traveled abroad and asked for directions from someone who did not speak your own language? Perhaps you unsuccessfully attempted to use Google Translate or tried gestures and hand signals to communicate your request. The ability to communicate in the same language greatly increases the likelihood of shared understanding.

In health care, having a standard terminology facilitates the flow of information. Just as two people who speak different languages have difficulty understanding one another, so will two databases that utilize differing sets of terminologies. Standardized, shared terminologies enable database systems to effectively communicate.

To prepare:

  • Review this week’s Learning Resources focusing on the significance of standardized terminologies in health care settings. Consider how standardized terminologies are important in the development and use of databases and clinical information systems.
  • Explore the websites of major health care organizations to determine their recommendations on acceptable standardized terminologies.
  • Determine the standardized terminologies currently used by your health care organization (or one with which you are familiar).
  • Consider the standard terminologies (recommended by a major medical organization or based on your experiences) you would like to see incorporated into your organization’s databases and clinical information systems. What would be the benefit of using these particular standards? How might this impact the quality of the information retrieved from databases within your organization?

By Day 3

Post a description of at least one standardized terminology that is recommended by a major health care organization. Assess how or if this terminology is incorporated into your organization’s databases and clinical information systems. Identify at least one additional standardized terminology you would like to see incorporated into the organization’s databases. Analyze the importance of incorporating this terminology and how this could impact the quality of the data retrieved from the databases. Justify your response.

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.

By Day 6

Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days using one or more of the following approaches:

  • Ask a probing question, substantiated with additional background information, evidence, or research.
  • Share an insight from having read your colleagues’ postings, synthesizing the information to provide new perspectives.
  • Offer and support an alternative perspective using readings from the classroom or from your own research in the Walden Library.
  • Make a suggestion based on additional evidence drawn from readings or after synthesizing multiple postings.

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